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Flashcards in Lesson 3A (Part 3) Deck (32)
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1

What is the inverted nipple due to?

Cancer
- can be congenital

2

Micromastia

Abnormal smallness of the breast

3

Macromastia

Excessive size of the breasts

4

What is the sonographic anatomy of the breast? (9)

1. Skin
2. Retromammary fat
3. Subcutaneous fat
4. Pectoralis muscle
5. Breast parenchyma
6. Ribs/pleura
- mammary zone
7. Nipple region
8. Copper’s ligaments
9. Tail of Spence

5

How does the skin appear sonographically?

A highly reflective band along the surface of the breast
- near field

6

What is the normal thickness of the skin of the breast?

2-3mm

7

Where does the subcutaneous fat lie?

Between the skin and the breast parenchyma
- mammary zone

8

Is subcutaneous fat homogenous or heterogenous?

Homogenous

9

What does coopers ligaments arise from?

Breast parenchyma
- extend radially from the deep fascial planes to the skin

10

What kind of structures are cooper ligaments?

Tent like structures

11

What is the echogenicity of coopers ligament?

Echogenic

12

Where does parenchyma lie?

Beneath the subcutaneous fat

13

What is the echogenicity of parenchyma?

Mixed homogeneity

14

What are the 4 patterns of echogenicity of parenchyma?

1. Fibrous
2. Premenstrual
3. Postmenstrual
4. Pregnant

15

Where is retromammary fat located?

Posterior to parenchyma

16

What does the retromammary fat form?

A layer between the deep fascia plane and the pectoralis muscle

17

Where is the pectoralis muscle situated?

Anterior to ribs

18

What do you want to see on you US when scanning the pectoralis muslce?

Ribs
- this tells you that you have done a full sweep of the tissue

19

How do ribs appear sonographically?

Appear as hypoechoic structures containing low-level echoes that attenuate causing an acoustic shadow

20

Pleura

Linear echogenic line deep to rib

21

When does the pleura move?

With respiration

22

What does the nipple consist of?

Both dense connective tissue and connective tissue of
the duct
- can cause posterior acoustic shadowing

23

Tail of spence

Is the portion of the breast that extends into the axillary region

24

What is the sonographic appearance of lymph nodes? (3)

1. Solid nodule
2. Ovoid
3. Echogenic fatty hilum

25

Ducts

Tubular branching structures

26

What does breast density refer to?

Relative amount of fibroglandular tissue to fatty tissue

27

What does high breast density mean?

There is a greater amount of breast and connective tissue compared to fat

28

What does low breast density mean?

There is a greater amount of fat compared to breast and connective tissue

29

What are the normal breast tissues? (3)

1. Premammary zone
2. Mammary zone
3. Retro-mammary zone

30

Premammary zone

Skin and overlying breast fat