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Flashcards in Lesson 2A (Part 3) Deck (16)
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What is the role of US when looking at the salivary glands? (7)

1. Find palpable lumps in the gland/neck
2. Identify pain
3. Look for mumps
4. Look for illnesses
- including mouth or dental infections
5. Identify mouth dryness
6. Recognize abnormality on previous x-rays, CT or sialograms
7. Guidance of injection, aspiration or biopsy


What is a scanning technique when scanning the salivary glands in supine? (3)

1. Tip the patient's head back for better access
2. Compare both sides
- should look the same
3. Scan the entirety of the gland from midline to lateral several times


What are you asses when you are scanning the salivary glands? (4)

1. Size
2. Increased vascularity
3. Any abnormality in the surrounding anatomy
- including the lymph nodes
4. Duct dilatation
- use Colour Doppler confirm its a duct not a vessel


Where does the duct start?

From within the hilum of the gland
- follow the duct to the submental region


Where is the kuttner lymph node located?

Between the parotid and submandibular gland


What is the sonographic appearance of the glands? (2)

1. Hypoechoic
2. Homogeneous echotexture
- similar to a muscle's echogenicity


What is the sonographic appearance of the intraglandular ducts?

Small linear hypoechoic parallel stripes


How long is the submandibular duct in diameter?

No more than 2mm
- whole length is often not all seen


Why should the parotid gland be more attenuative than the submandibular gland?

Because of its fat content


Where does the parotid duct start?

From the level of the ear lobe and courses across the cheek via the accessory parotid gland
- the duct is not visible unless dilated


When are sublingual glands typically seen on US?

If they have pathology
- dilated


What is the normal size of a sublingual gland?

32 x 12mm


What is the sublingual gland obsured by?

The mandible anteriorly


What is the sonographic appearance of the sublingual gland? (2)

1. Homogeneous
2. Hyperechogenicity
- similar to the parotid gland


What is the best position to scan the sublingual glands?

Transverse and longitudinal planes from the submental position
- under the chin



Injecting contrasts into the salivary gland and tries to see what happens to the parotid gland itself
- this is usually done with x-ray