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What are 6 common drivers of organizational change?

- workforce demographics
- technology
- globalization
- market conditions
- organizational growth
- poor performance


Explain how workforce demographics is a driver in organizational change (2)

- change is usually a response to changes in the environment
- as a workforce gets older, the types of benefits they prefer may change


Explain how globalization is a driver in organizational change (2)

- it is a threat and an opportunity, depending on the ability to adapt
- it is often cheaper to produce in some countries compared to others


Explain how poor performance is a driver in organizational change

- change is more likely to happen if the company is performing poorly and if there is a threat from the environment


What are the four common ways we react to change?

- active resistance
- passive resistance
- compliance
- enthusiastic supporters


What is active resistance? (2)

- most negative reaction to a proposed change
- sabotage the change effort and be outspoken objectors to new procedures


What is passive resistance? (3)

- being disturbed by changes without necessarily voicing these opinions
- dislike the change (feel stressed and unhappy)
- reduce the output or quality of work or stop engaging in organizational citizenship behaviours


What does compliance involve?

going along with proposed changes with little enthusiasm


Who are the enthusiastic supporters?

defenders of the new way and actually encourage others around them to give support to change effort as well


What is a general rule for any change attempt?

you have to over come the resistance on the part of people to be successful


When are there negative consequences to change?

for the people in question, when people negatively react to change, they have neg emotions, use sick time and will leave


What are 7 reasons why we might resist change?

- disrupted habits and routines
- personality
- feelings of uncertainty
- fear of failure
- personal impact of change
- prevalence of change
- perceived loss of power


What types of personality do better with organizational change? (5)

- positive self concept
- positive self efficacy
- optimistic people
- internal locus of control
- high risk tolerance


What are 2 key concepts that might be applied to understanding dear of failure with change?

- self efficacy
- locus of control


What is a transformational change within an organization?

at least 25% of existing structures, procedures, business lines are being changed


What is one of the most useful frameworks in the ability to plan, organize, and execute change?

Kurt Lewin's 3 stage model of planned change


What is the assumption that change will encounter?



According to Kurt Lewin, how should you plan and execute change effectively?

FREEZE (or making sure members are ready for and receptive to change), then CHANGE (executing the changes), then REFREEZE (ensure change is permanent, and new rules become the norm)


What are the forces called that push us towards change?

driving forces


What are the forces pushing against us to keep the status quo?

restraining forces


As long as the driving and restraining forces are equal...

we will maintain status quo


If the driving forces are more powerful than the restraining forces...

we will move towards change


What is Kotter’s Eight-stage Process for Change?

1. Create a sense of urgency when introducing the change effort.
2. Build a coalition.
3. Create a vision for change and make change a part of the vision.
4. Communicate a plan for change
5. Eliminate obstacles to change
6. Create small wins
7. Build on change
8. Make change a part of culture.


What happens when you are trying to build a coalition?

- in order to convince people change is needed, instead of trying to get everyone on board at the same time, it may be more useful to convince and prepare the opinion leaders


What happens when employees are able to participate in planning change efforts?

they tend to have more positive opinions about the change as they can voice their concerns, a sense of ownership


Why is it important to have small wins?

to make the point that their idea is on the right track, and early success gives change planners more creditability