Joints: Upper & Lower Limb Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Joints: Upper & Lower Limb Deck (100)
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1

the pelvic girdle is the union of the sacrum and 2 hip bones at the (three joints)

the pelvis can be divided into the ____ and _____

 

sacroilliac joints and pubic symphasis

 

The pelvis is divided into Greater (false) and Lesser (True) pelvises by terminal line.

the false pelvis is the superior half, the true would be the inferior half due to the contents of the pelvic organs  

2

10

iliofemoral ligament

strongest ligaments in the human body, part of the extracapsular ligaments

3

13

pubofemoral ligament

part of the extracapsular ligaments

4

11

zona orbiculuaris

5

12

ischiofemoral ligament

part of the extracapsular ligaments

6

the sacroilliac joint is composed of two parts:

Composed of 2 parts:

  • Anterior Synovial joint (Amphiarthrosis) between the auricular surfaces of sacrum and ilium, the joint capsule is very taut and encloses the almost immobile joint and reinforced by ligaments.
  •  Posterior Syndesmosis between the tuberosities of sacrum and ilium

7

1 and 2

superior and inferior pubic ligaments

8

Pubic Symphysis is what kind of joint?

Pubic Symphysis:

non-synovial joint
- Fibrous cartilaginous joint consists of a fibrocartilaginous interpubic disc.

- The disc is generally wider in women, containing a small Non-Synovial cavity

9

the hip joint is what kind of joint? describe the capsule


- Ball & Socket (Spheroidal) Multiaxial free moving type of joint.

Joint capsule, strong yet loose, has an external fibrous layer and an internal Synovial
membrane. Proximally it attaches around the Acetabular rim and transverse Acetabular
ligament, and distally it attaches to the femoral neck only at the Intertrochanteric line
anteriorly, but posteriorly it crosses the neck to attach to the Intertrochanteric crest.

There are 4 extracapsular ligaments and 1 intercapsular ligament (the femoral ligament)

10

name the 4 hip joint Bursa

  •  Iliopectineal Bursa: large bursa between the Iliopsoas muscle and the hip joint anteriorly
  • Obturator Externus Bursa: a Synovial protrusion beyond the margin of joint capsule into the posterior aspect of the femoral neck. For the tendon of Obturator Externus
  • Obturator Internus Bursa
  • Gluteus Maximus, Medius and Minimus Bursae: Also called Trochanteric Bursae, found between tendons and greater and lesser trochanters

11

What are the movements of the hip joint?

- Movements: Free moving, Multiaxial joint, 3 axes:
 Anteversion (Flexion) / Retroversion (Extension), at a transverse axis through the head of femur
 Abduction / Adduction, at an Anterior-Posterior (Sagittal) axis through the head of femur
 Medial / Lateral Rotation, at a vertical axis through the head of femur and the medial femoral condyle
 Combined movements of the above produce Circumduction


** Note: the degree of flexion/extension possible at the hip joint depends on the position of the knee. If the knee is flexed (hamstring muscles are relaxed), the
thigh can be actively flexed until it reaches the anterior wall of abdomen. Extension is very limited due to the strong Iliofemoral ligament. Lateral rotation is more powerful than medial rotation.

12

The hip joint uses what muscles to aid in Flexion? What is the maximum degree of movement?

flexion/Anteversion
(With flexed knee Max. 130-140°)

Iliopsoas

Rectus Femoris

Pectineus

Sartorius

13

The hip joint uses what muscles to aid in extension? What is the maximum degree of movement?

extension/Retroversion
(15°, with abduction 45°)

Gluteus Maximus

Semimembranosus

Semitendinosus

Biceps Femoris- Long Head

14

The hip joint uses what muscles to aid in abduction? What is the maximum degree of movement?

Abduction
(50°, in flexion 80°)

Gluteus Medius

Gluteus Minimus

Tensor Fascia L

15

The hip joint uses what muscles to aid in adduction? What is the maximum degree of movement?

Adduction
(10°, in flexion 30°)

Adductor Magnus

Adductor Longus

Adductor Brevis

Pectineus

Gracilis

16

The hip joint uses what muscles to aid in lateral rotation? What is the maximum degree of movement?

Lateral Rot.
(15°, in flexion 60°)

Gluteus Maximus

Gluteus Medius- Dorsal part

Gluteus Minimus- Dorsal part

Obturator internus

Piriformis

Quadratus Femoris

17

The hip joint uses what muscles to aid in medial rotation? What is the maximum degree of movement?

Medial Rot.
(30°, in flexion 40°)

Gluteus Medius
Ventral part

Gluteus Minimus
Ventral part

Adductor Longus

Iliopsoas

18

The knee joint is what kind of joint and which bones/ surfaces are involved? 

mainly a hinge joint combined with gliding
and rolling and with rotation (Torchoid) about a vertical axis, 2 axes joint.
The articular surfaces are large sized, complicated & incongruent shapes. We have to distinguish 3 articulations in the knee joint:
 2 Femortibial articulations (lateral & medial) between the lateral and the medial femoral and Tibial condyles


 1 Intermediate Femoropatellar articulation between patella and the femur


 The fibula is not involved in the joint

19

2

Patellar ligament:

distal part of quadriceps muscle, thick fibrous band passing from apex of patella to the Tibial tuberosity. On both sides it receives the lateral and medial patellar retinacula (expansions of Vastus muscles and overlying
fascia) which make up the joint capsule on both sides of the patella. Maintain the patella in appropriate articular position with the femur.

20

5

lateral patellar retinaculum

21

6

medial patellar retinaculum

22

9

tibial collateral ligament

strong, flat capsular band
that extends from medial epicondyle of femur to the medial condyle of tibia (&medial superior surface). Its deep fibers are strongly attached and fused to the
medial meniscus and joint capsule. It is weaker than the fibular collateral ligament and more often damaged.

23

15

Fibular collateral ligament (lateral collateral ligament):

cord-like strong extracapsular ligament from lateral epicondyle of femur to the lateral surface of
head of fibula. It is separated from the lateral meniscus and capsule by the tendon of popliteus and it splits the tendon of Biceps Femoris into 2.

24

22

suprapatellar bursa

25

medial view, 9

tibial collateral ligament

26

14

tendon of semimembranosus

27

18

Oblique Popliteal ligament:

expansion of the tendon of Semimembranosus that
reinforces the joint capsule posteriorly. Arises posterior to the medial Tibial condyle and passes superolaterally toward the lateral femoral condyle.

28

19

Arcuate Popliteal ligament:

from posterior aspect of fibular head, passes
superiorly above the tendon of popliteus and spreads on the posterior surface of knee joint. Strengthens the joint Posteriorly

29

23

medial bursa subtendinous of gastocnemius

30

24 and 25

medial and lateral head of gastrocnemius