III: Acquired Communication Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in III: Acquired Communication Disorders Deck (122)
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acquired LD

aphasia (4)

caused by acquired brain damage, language impairment NOT a speech impairment, intact nonverbal cognition and intelligence, anomia


acquired LD

grammatical competence (3)

the expression and comprehension of the formal grammatical aspects of language, syntax and morphology, deficits aka agrammatism


acquired LD

auditory comprehension (A/C) (1)

the ability to attach meaning to the words spoken by others


acquired LD

verbal repetition (2)

a skill to help differentiate the aphasia syndromes, repetition tasks: verbal short-term memory, verbal working memory


acquired LD

reading and writing deficits (6)

alexia, deep dyslexia (preserved whole word reading, difficulty with sound-by-sound), surface dyslexia (preserved sound-by-sound reading, difficulty with whole word), pure alexia without agraphia, letter-by-letter (LBL) reading, agraphia


acquired LD

persevervation (2)

inappropriate repetition of a response of continuation of a behavior when it is no longer required or appropriate, can be recurrent or continuous


acquired LD

recurrent vs continuous preservation

repeating a response to fill a delay :: immediately repeating a response without delay


acquired LD

stuck-in-set (1)

inability to shift response set when directed to (for example, stuck on counting when pt is asked to recite alphabet)


acquired LD

apraxia (1)

a disorder of the execution of a learned movement that is not cause by motor weakness, incoordination or sensory loss and it is not due to failure to understand the command


acquired LD

ideomotor apraxia (2)

most common particularly following left hemisphere strokes, difficulty with: selection, sequencing and spatial orientation of movements for gestures


acquired LD

AOS (2)*

apraxia of speech, a sensorimotor speech disorder with symptoms of impaired volitional production of articulation and prosody that does not result from: abnormal muscle strength, tone or timing NOR does it arise from aphasia, confusion, generalized intellectual impairment or hearing loss

*may co-occur in persons with aphasia


acquired LD

agnosia (3)

generally associated with cortical brain damage (parietal, temporal, occipital), not a result of primary sensory deficits, a disorder of recognition of: objects, people, sounds, colors, etc


acquired LD

prosopagnosia vs anosognosia

inability to recognize faces :: inability to recognize one's own illness


acquired LD

language zone (2)*

fed by the middle cerebral artery (MCA) so often a left MCS stroke will result in an aphasia, includes: angular gyrus, broca's area, wernicke's area, arcuate fasciculus, supra marginal gyrus

*includes the cortical and subcortical regions of the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes of the left hemisphere


acquired LD

anterior vs posterior lesions (1::1)*

leads to confluent aphasia :: leads to fluent aphasia

*damage to both regions of the language zone of the left hemisphere may result in a severe aphasia with concomitant right hemiparesis


acquired LD

right hemiparesis (2)

impairment of motor functioning on the right side of the body, caused by damage to the motor strip (left pre central sulcus and deeper)


acquired LD

right hemiplegia (1)

paralysis on the right side of the body


acquired LD

etiologies (4)*

cerebrovascular disease (leading cause), TBI, brain tumor, neurodegenerative disorders

*damage occurs on the language zone of the left hemisphere


acquired LD

TIA (3)

transient ischemic attack, temporary loss of neurological function caused by interruption of blood flow to a brain region, warning sign for stroke


acquired LD

CVA (2)

cerebrovascular accident aka stroke, most common cause of aphasia


acquired LD

embolus vs thrombosis (1::1)*

blood clot formed in another body area and traveled up to the brain (usually from heart) :: blood clot formed in the brain

*each are considered occlusive strokes and may be treated using clot-bursting rugs such as TPA


acquired LD

hemorrhagic CVA (1)

rupture of vessels in the brain (rather than blockage of blood flow)


acquired LD

types of brain hemorrhages

ruptured aneurysm (ballooned-out area), arteriovenous malformation (AVM -- tangled blood vessels usually congenital), intracerebral hemorrhage (rupture within neural tissue), subdural/subarachnoid hemorrhage (rupture in the meningeal coverings of the brain)


acquired LD

TBI (2)*

traumatic brain injury, damage may be focal or diffuse, causes include: motor vehicle accidents (MVAs), falls, head trauma, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE -- multiple concussions), blast injuries, gunshot/stab wounds, closed head injuries (CHIs)

*common site of damage is uni/bi-lateral prefrontal area(s)


acquired LD

coup vs countrecoup (1::1)*

site of impact :: opposite site of impact

*types of focal injuries


acquired LD

DAI (2)

diffuse axonal injury, a type of diffuse injury


acquired LD

tumors of the neural tissues of the brain (2)*

glioma, meningioma

*metastatic tumors originate elsewhere in the body


acquired LD

dementia syndromes that also have significant language defects as part of the profile (4)

alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia (includes primary progressive aphasia), vascular dementia, dementia with lewy bodies


acquired LD

standardized aphasia assessments (7)

boston diagnostic aphasia examination (BDAE-3), boston naming test (BNT), western aphasia battery-revised (WAB-R), aphasia diagnostic profiles (ADP), cognitive linguistic quick test (CLQT), porch index of communicative abilities-revised (PICA-R), minnesota test for the differential diagnosis of aphasia (MTDDA)


acquired LD

aphasia assessments that address functional communication abilities (4)

communication activities of daily living (CADL-2), functional assessment of communication skills for adults (ASHA FACS), communicative effectiveness index (CETI), boston naming of severe aphasia (BASA)