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Flashcards in I: Foundational Knowledge Deck (153)
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1

anaphys

planes of section (3)

frontal:coronal, sagittal:median, horizontal:axial

2

anaphys

directional nomenclature (5)

cranial:caudal, ventral:dorsal, medial:lateral, proximal:distal, flexion:extension

3

anaphys

major body cavities (2)*

dorsal, ventral (includes subcavities: thoracic and abdominal)

*separated by diaphragm

4

anaphys

tissue types (4)

epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous

5

anaphys

relationship between input and output of neurons

dendrites:input :: axons:output

6

anaphys

relationship between myelination in the CNS and PNS

oligodendrocytes myelinate axons in the CNS :: Schwann cells myelinate axons in the PNS

7

anaphys

action potentials (APs) (6)

specialized by axons, originate at the trigger zone, insulated by myelin sheath, all-or-nothing (threshold is reached or is not reached), terminate at boutons, resting potential restored by Na+/K+ pump

8

anayphys

major divisions of the PNS (2)*

somatic:action and awareness :: autonomic/visceral:detects and acts on body's internal environment

*autonomic/visceral subdivided into parasympathetic (homeostasis) and sympathetic (fight or flight)

9

anaphys

cranial nerves V and VII through XII

V:trigeminal, VII:facial, VIII:vestibulocochlear, IX:glossopharyngeal, X:vagus, XI:spinal accessory, XII:hypoglossal

10

anaphys

trigeminal nerve (5)*

CN V, three major branches (ophthalmic, maxillary, mandibular), face sensation, muscles of mastication and tensor tympani

*oral stage of swallowing

11

anaphys

facial nerve (4)*

CN VII, taste anterior 2/3 tongue, facial expression, salivation

*oral stage of swallowing AND speech articulation

12

anaphys

glossopharyngeal nerve (5)*

CN IX, taste posterior 1/3 tongue, sensation of middle ear and upper pharynx, motor innervation of stylopharyngeus, gag reflex

*oral and pharyngeal stages of swallowing

13

anaphys

vagus nerve (7)

CN X, sensation of lower pharynx, motor innervation of pharyngeal-laryngeal muscles of soft palate, velum elevation, gag reflex, VF tension, add-abduction

14

anaphys

spinal accessory nerve (2)

CN XI, motor innervation of sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles (for head turning and shoulder elevation)

15

anaphys

hypoglossal nerve (3)

CN XII, motor innervation of intrinsic tongue muscles, oral stage of swallowing (bolus formation and propulsion)

16

anaphys

CNS meninges layers (3)

meninges cover CNS in three protective layers (pia, arachnoid, dura matter** -- think PAD)

**listed from deep to superficial

17

anaphys

CSF (3)

cerebrospinal fluid, flows between pia and arachnoid layers of meninges, brain floats in CSF for protection from mechanical injury

18

anaphys

dura mater (2)

encapsulates brain and spinal cord, physically separates major regions of the brain

19

anaphys

in reference to separation between the brainstem and the spinal cord, 'There is continuity in much of the neuroanatomy, but one identifying feature is that...'

'...the corticospinal fibers in the pyramidal tracts cross the midline (decussate) in the medulla and the travel in the lateral corticospinal tracts within the spinal cord.'

20

anaphys

brainstem (3)

region of the brain spanning between forebrain and spinal cord, the route through which nearly all neural information travels between the body and the brain, three segments (medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain)

21

anaphys

medulla oblongata of the brainstem and CN involvement (2)

X:larynx, pharynx and upper esophagus, XII:tongue

22

anaphys

pons of the brainstem and CN involvement (2)

V:mastication and sensory nuclei for the head, VII:facial expressions

23

anaphys

cerebellum (2)

important role in motor control, lesions do not cause paralysis but may cause ataxia

24

anaphys

reticular formation (3)

centered primarily in the pons, coordinate muscle functions of the body and head, guide attention and arousal

25

anaphys

CNS lobe anatomy (4)*

frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital

*marked by/at central sulcus

26

anaphys

frontal lobe (5)

anterior to central sulcus and superior to lateral fissure

executive function (prefrontal cortex), language production (L inferior frontal gyrus of the prefrontal cortex), skilled movements (premotor cortex), motor strip which sources majority of body motor control signals (precentral gyrus -- site of primary motor cortex)

27

anaphys

parietal lobe (2)

posterior to central sulcus and superior to lateral fissure

body sensation including hearing and vision

28

anaphys

temporal lobe (3)

inferior to lateral sulcus and anterior to occipital lobe

primary auditory cortex (Heschl's gyrus), language comprehension (Wernicke's area)

29

anaphys

occipital lobe (2)

most posterior lobe of the brain (no distinct separation from neighboring lobes)

higher-order processing of visual information (primary visual cortex)

30

anaphys

limbic cortex (4)

memory, emotion, drive-related behavior, primitive behavior