Transformational Leadership style; actions characterized by sense of ethics, conviction, commitment, purpose, and decisiveness in the face of difficult issues
Transformational Leadership style; characterized by an appealing vision, high standards, optimism, enthusiasm, encouragement, and injecting meaning into follower actions
Transformational Leadership style; leaders question the status quo (especially regarding assumptions, beliefs, and values), stimulate change, and encourage innovation and communication
Transformational Leadership style; leaders attend to each follower by listening actively, and attending to individual's needs, dreams, and abilities, or mentoring, coaching, and teaching
Avolio and Bass' full-range leadership model
Transformational leadership most effective; transactional shown less effective; lassies-faire leadership is least effective.
Transformational leadership most effective in:
Unstable environments, organic organizational structures, entrepreneurial cultures
Contingency theory's Task Complexity
Task structure elements such as clear/unclear feedback, few versus many potential employable tactics, and few versus many potential outcomes. Complex tasks = vague feedback, many possible tactics and outcomes. Simple tasks = clear feedback, one or two tactics and only one or two outcomes
Ideal situation for leadership
Task is simple: leader has substantial legitimate power, worker-worker and worker-leader relationships are positive
Worst situation for leadership
Task is complex, leader has little legitimate power, worker-worker and worker-leader relationships are poor
Suggests that members evaluate each other's positions on the issue, and the shift occurs in the direction of the mean position
Vroom and Yetton's A1
Leaders decide with available information
Vroom and Yetton's C1
Leaders ask individual subordinates for their views and then decides
Vroom and Yetton's G11
Leaders share the problem with the subordinates as a group, focuses and directs discussion without imposing his/her will, and tries to reach a consensus, within the group making the final decision
Vroom and Yetton's optimal leadership and decision-making style
Dependent on structure of the task, time constraints, subordinate's interrelationships, and subordinates' commitment to the decision
employee's involvement in all aspects of job throughout the process
Psychological states affecting core elements of motivation
meaningfulness; sense of responsibility (autonomy); knowledge of outcomes (feedback)
Hackman and Oldman's MPS
Motivating Potential Score; MPS = skill variety + task identity + task significance x autonomy x feedback; motivation higher when characteristic amounts are higher; if any characteristic is missing, score returns to zero
McGregor's Theory X
Workers lack motivation and ambition, are not self-directed, and must be controlled, coerced,and supervised if work is to get done; emphasizes workplace hierarchy, efficient division of labor, span of control, and strict supervision.
McGregor's Theory Z
Commitment to employees, evaluation, careers, control, decision-making, responsibility, concern for people; values long-term employment, slow and qualitative eval. of employees, informal and implicit control, believes employees are committed and loyal, group decision making and personal responsibility, and health and well-being of employee important
Human Relations Approach
Stems from Hawthorne's research, which suggests that psychological factors are more important that physical aspects of the work environment (lighting, temp, breaks) in terms of productivity.
Generally intended as providing support in planning career or business moves, with coach acting as a guide and consultant.
Supporting the client in developing, modifying, or adjusting career objectives by determining career needs and desires and developing an appropriate plan
Schneider's Organizational Culture
Population of ppl define an organizations's culture. Attraction-selection-attirtion (ASA) cycle. Ppl w/similar values drawn to organization and hired. Those not fitting pattern of shared values leave.
Good predictors of turnover
Application info: previous job, education, specialized training, personal history
Flexible work schedules
Workers choose start and stop times. May be required to work core hours and must get 40 hours. Leads to lower levels of stress, more productivity, and job satisfaction, less absenteeism, and a healthier work-life balance. Doesn't necessarily affect performance ratings.
Compressed work week
Shortne week by working longer but fewer days; associated with higher levels of satisfaction and higher supervisor ratings of performance; no significant findings regarding absenteeism or productivity
Which work shift leads to most health problems?
Herzberg's hygiene needs
physical and security
Global job satisfaction
overall satisfaction with work
Defining factors in satisfaction
employee's expectations of compensation, level of challenge, responsibility, pleasantness of work environment, rx w/coworkers fairness of supervisors