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1

Goal of APA Ethics Code

welfare of individuals and groups with whom psychoogists work, and the education of APA members and public

2

deception in research

study has strong scientific value & non-deceptive alternatives are not available

3

Differential Validity (discrimination)

When 1 ethnicity scores differently than another ethnicity.

4

General Expectancy Theory 

AKA

Vroom's Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy (VIE)

Motivation Theory, not Performance

5

Expectancy

Refers to expectancy of success on the task.

Employees decide on how likely it is that their efforts will result in desired achievement on task.

6

instrumentality

anticipation of rewards.

Employees consider the probability that rewards will follow thier accomplishment or performance

7

Valence

value the rewards have for employees.

employees deermine how much they value the offered rewards

8

Adam's Equity theory

Ratio of self-inputs/self outcomes versus other's inputs outcomes. 

Based on SOCIAL COMPARISION theory. 

We adjust our performance based on things appearing fair or unfair.

9

General Performance Model

Performance is a function of

  • opportunity
    (environmental variables & organizational support)
  • capacity/ability (individual attributes)
  • willingness/motivation (work effort)

10

Hollands Typology

RIASEC

11

Holland Congruence

Match between personality type & work environment

High congruence = longevity at the job.

12

Holland consistency

Consistency = how closely related a person's 1st 2 code letters are on hexagon

 

= stability in work Hx

13

Holland Differentiation

Distinctness of profile. Easiest to predict behavior of people with highly differentiated profiles

14

Environmental identity

individual's view that work environment has a clear & stable system of goals & rewards

15

Contrast Effect

judge's rating of a subject is influenced by prior subject

16

Herzberg 2 factor theory

content = satisfaction - higher level needs motivators

context = dissatisfaction = lower level needs hygeine

17

administrative model of decision making vs

rational-economic model 

admin = satisficing

rational = all possile alternative solutions

18

House's Path-Goal Theory

Leadership = increase personal payoffs for subordinates & make paths to payoffs easier by clarifying and reducing roadblocks

 

Help employee to acheive goals

19

Incremental Power

Combo of expert & referent power. Most common reaason subordinates comply with supervisor's requests

20

Super's theory of career develpment

<<Career Rainbow>>

Career maturity

  1. growth (14)
  2. exploratory (15-24)
  3. establishment (25-44)
  4. maintenance (45-64)
  5. decline or disengagment (65+)

8 life roles

 

21

Counterconditioning

Based on principle of reciprocal inhibition (2 incompatible responses cannot be experienced at the same time, but rahter that the stronger response will dominate or inhibit the weaker. 

22

Specific Counterconditioning interventions

  1. systematic desensitization
  2. sensate focus
  3. assertiveness training
  4. aversive counterconditioning

23

Best Phobia treatment

exposure with response prevention

- exposure

 

24

in escape paradigm

punishment is inevitable

25

Stimulus control

putting a behavior under the control of only certain stimuli

26

autonmous Functions of the Ego

Hartmann - ego psychology

 

conflict-free zone

using perception, learning, memory, & locomotion

27

Beck's Cognitive Triad

  1. negative view of self as defective and inadequate
  2. tendency to experience world as negative, interprete events negative, and expect failure and punishment
  3. expectation of continued hardship or negative appraisal of future.

28

phenomenological approach

understanding subjective experiences

29

Reality Therapy founder

Glasser

30

Reality Therapy

Characterized by emphasis on responsibility, clarification of values, and evaluation of behavior

 

Deliquent adolescents & prison inmates