Who was the father of American psychology?
Where was the first American Psychology Lab?
At Harvard; William James
James-Lange Theory of Emotion
We feel our emotions after our physiological reactions; we feel sad because we cry
William James authored
Principles of Psychology describing his emotion theory in 1890
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
States that when confronted with an arousing event, people first feel and emotion then experience physiological reactions such as sweating, muscle tension, or trembling
Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
Developed by Schachter and Singer; states that emotions are the result of physiological arousal and bodily responses to an event.
Pairing of imaginative negative consequences with an undesirable behavior.
Purpose is to reduce likelihood of the behavior; use of negative mental imagery and rehearsal.
A form of aversive conditioning in which the frequency of undesirable behavior is lessened by mentally (COVERT PART) associating it with unpleasant mental images.
An example of using covert sensitization to overcome emotional overeating – which typically involves turning to unhealthy “comfort” foods during times of stress – could be vividly imagining taking a bit of the desired food, only to find that it’s covered in something revolting such as hair, feces, or vomit.
Using selective reinforcement (approximations) to modify a general response. Building a better bx by dividing it into small increments or steps and then teaching one step at a time until the desired bx is achieved; steps become a series of intermediate goals
Four-phase training program for stress management often used in CBT
Increase desirable behavior by imagining others performing similar behaviors with positive outcomes; ct imagines specific positive consequences of new behavior; based on simple modeling
A type of role modeling in which the therapist first engages in a desired behavior, and then through the use of aids the ct gradually moves toward the ability to perform the desired task
Coping Skills Training
Teach cts skills increasing cognitive, behavioral and affective proficiencies; commonly used for managing anxiety-provoking situations; uses positive self-statements and positive imagery.
Useful in children.
A form of Operant Conditioning in which an organism is trained to avoid certain responses or situations associated with negative consequences
Beck's cognitive therapy
Ct and therapist are equal partners working together with mutual understanding, communication and respect.
Premise is that ct is capable of objectively analyzing his/her own issues and arriving at own conclusions.
Uses guided discovery.
Thinking in absolute terms, like "always," "every," or "never"
Cognitive distortion in which individuals use their emotional state as evidence for rationale defending the source stimulus as the "cause" of their emotional state
Age of Freud's oral stage
Age of Freud's anal stage
Age of Freud's phallic stage
Age of Freud's latency stage
Age of Freud's genital stage
avoidance of thoughts/emotions
acting or staging feelins in direct opposition to one's true feelings because those true feelings are unacceptable to the self
Deeply identifying with an idea or object.
Person who picks up traits from their friends (e.g., a person who begins frequently exclaiming "Ridiculous!" as a result of hearing a friend of theirs repeatedly doing the same) is introjecting.
expression of thoughts or feelings to a safe target rather than the true target
transforming negative emotions into positive action or behaviors
Freud believed projection was:
root of paranoia
Freud and phobias
displacement of emotions from original object to new symbolic object
polar opposite expression of underlying depression