Method to describe jobs and human attributes necessary to perform them (KSAOs). Used to inform selection, placement, training, and other organizational processes.
Focus of job analysis
selection, placement, training and development, job redesign
Choosing the right person for the right job
assigning person with appropriate assignments
Training and development
modification of knowledge, skills and abilities
remaking the assignment fit person more appropriately
Components of Job Analysis
Determining KSAOs; group tasks into positions, then into jobs, then into job families; task statements (descriptions of the work), subject matter experts
Subject Matter Experts (SME)
current holders of position, supervisors, verify task statements
Functional job analysis
Task statements include how employee accomplishes the task (i.e. the physical, mental, and interpersonal resources called upon for job completion)
Worker-based job analysis
Focused directly on KSAOs, task statements (represents KSAOs: knowledge of, skill in, ability to); and linkage analysis (confirms linkage of KSAOs to immediate task.
Assessment of KSAOs
Interviews, work diaries, questionnaires, direct observation, id'ing CIs; position analysis questionnaire
A 3-part process (organization, operations, and person analysis) for ID'ing specific job relevant skills and bxs that must be trained to achieve optimal organizational and individual performance.
An organizational activity supported by job analysis that consists of ID'ing the monetary value of each job to the organization; this helps organizations determine how much to pay individuals in different positions
Realistic job description
AKA a realistic job preview (RJP). It is a technique for providing practical information about a job to prospective employees: includes information about the task and context of the work
Reduces turnover by 20%
Job Characteristics Assessment
Hackman and Oldman; To understand how employment positions affect motivation, satisfaction, and performance of employees.
Employee motivation related to what 3 psychological states while working
knowledge of actual results, sense of responsibility, and job meaningfulness
Job Characteristics Model
States that in order for an employee to be highly motivated, they must have these 5 characteristics: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback
- measures the effectiveness of an intervention in the workplace in terms of the dollar value of the benefits generated
- Performed when organization wants to understand economic return of a HR strategy they employ/are contemplating;
- utility is dollar payoff of one strategy over another
- conducted w/reference to selection or training program & compared to performance and productivity
Utility value equation
Utility value = rewards (profits w/new strategy) x expected payoff over time (how long strategy will produce benefit) x # of applicants accommodated - expense of strategy
High utility value
Strategy profitable/cost effective
Often conducted with Utility Analysis to determine which strategy was statistically related to performance improvements
Taylor-Russell Selection Tables
A utility model predicting success ratio of HR strategies based on validity, selection ratio, and base rate
When there is a significant difference in the predictive validity for different subgroups (usually ethnic groups)
Four characteristics of assessment centers
Supervisors and mid-level managers evaluated only; group/team oriented: assesed in groups of 10-20; multiple evaluators used; variety of asset activities implemented.
Goals of assmt centers
Evaluate individuals on many dimensions; info. used to make predictions on typical managerial skills
Multisource feedback procedure in which multiple rating sources provide feedback to managers. Sources include supervisors, subordinated, peers, and managers' self-ratings. Allows managers to see discrepancies in how they see self and others see them.
Job Selection Procedures
interviews, work samples, biota, and personality or cognitive tests. Procedures are known as predictors since they are assumed to predict job performance (criterion)
What big 5 trait is most related to job performance?
High conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability =
High measures of integrity
Low agreeableness, low conscientiousness, high extraversion and high neuroticism =
antisocial personality dx