How Was Apartheid Codified And Implemented 1948-59? Flashcards Preview

South Africa History Key Topic 1- The Response To Apartheid > How Was Apartheid Codified And Implemented 1948-59? > Flashcards

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Strengthening the National Party

Simple majority in parliament could enact a new legislation
1951 Separate Representation of Voters Act removed remaining coloured vote
Winning wider support among whites


Hendrik Verwoerd

PM 1958-66
Coordinated apartheid project
African people still saw themselves as tribal people


Race laws

Afrikaner nationalists deeply concerned about sex between white and black people
Grew from religious belief or a racial feeling
Mixed Marriages Act (1949) and Immorality Act (1950) prohibited both marriage and sex by whites across defined racial boundaries
Population Registration Act (1950)


Group Areas Act

From 1950
Damaging effect on black communities
Provided powers to eradicate African 'locations' or townships so that central parts of the cities and closer suburbs would be very largely in white hands


What was Sophiatown like?

First to fall victim to apartheid planners
Able to hold private land
Not subject to same restrictions as municipal townships
Relatively close to cities centre, mix of wealthy and poor
Attracted writers and journalists from Drum magazine
Reputation of a racy lifestyle made it an easy target


What was Durban like?

SAs third largest city
1/3 Indian, African and white
Indians let out land to African tenants
Africans attacked Indians who felt they were exploiting them as landlords


District six

Multi racial, largely coloured, residential and business area near the heart of Cape Town city centre
Group Areas enforced a little later, 1966
60,000 forcibly removed and resettled


Restrictions before 1948

Laws removing blacks from the franchise and limiting where they could buy land


Pass laws

Before 1948, all African men had to carry a pass if they were travelling outside reserves
Natives Abolition of Passes Act (1952) now required a reference book for each african adult-est identity and right to be in area


1952 Urban Areas Act

Gave urban rights to a minority of African people
Been born, worked in for 10years or lived for 15 in a town


Convictions under pass laws

In ten years, 3million turned into criminals for pass law. Incidents


Effectiveness of pass laws

Pass laws failed to keep Africans out of the cities
African urban population rose
People prepared to brave the pass laws in order to find work and other opportunities


Education prior to 1948

Education for the most part racially segregated
Most schools funded by govt and managed by local churches, gave only basic primary education
24% black South Africans recorded as literate in 1951 census


Bantu Education Act

Extend education to African children
Segregate content of education
Did increase educational opportunities
Some degree of literacy, numeracy and linguistic ability in order to provide workforce
Should prepare for only limited roles


The Tomlinson Commission

Bantustans could be transformed by massive state investments of over £100 million


Beliefs of the Tomlinson commission

Creating a class of full time farmers by increasing the size of plot and turning communal into private tenure
Major funding for rural industries
Private enterprise should be encouraged to invest in these areas


Response to Tomlinson Commission

Verwoerd rejected
Did not believe that white SAs would support expenditure of this scale
Millions of Africans would potentially lose land and have little option but to migrate to cities to find work


Reasoning for 'betterment' and 'rehabilitation'

Prioritised a policy
International concern about soil erosion
Deeply perturbed by environmental degradation and soil erosion in reserves
Thought it was undermining peasant agriculture
Would enable Africans to intensify farming without destroying land


Practice of betterment

Believed livestock was main issue
Divide pastures with barbed wire
Animals moved from paddock to paddock throughout the year to avoid over grazing
Govt officials moved rural families from scattered settlements into compact villages
Over a million forced to move and people forced to sell livestock
Moving into villages and culling of animals resented and policy abandoned in 60s


Inadequacies of Bantustans

Nation Party not prepared to divide SA equally
Africans to be subdivided into historical chieftaincies and language group yet no division of whites
Africans didn't always consider themselves part of the subdivisions


What was the Congress Alliance?

Broad alliance of anti-apartheid organisations including the ANC, Indian Congress, trade unionists and others


Treason Trial

1956, 156 members of Congress Alliance arrested in dawn raids
Accused of high treason and subjected to trial that would last 5years


Bantu Authorities Act
Bantu Self Government Act