How Did African Nationalism Develop 1948-59? Flashcards Preview

South Africa History Key Topic 1- The Response To Apartheid > How Did African Nationalism Develop 1948-59? > Flashcards

Flashcards in How Did African Nationalism Develop 1948-59? Deck (14)
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The development of ANC youth league

1940s growing gap between more cautious, established professional leadership and new generation of activists
More confrontational approach to white minority rule
Called for African consciousness, nationalism and United African people, opposed to ideologies such as socialism or African traditional leadership
Not motivated by religious ideas


Youth League's Programme of Action

Move away from concession seeking from a white government
More militant liberation
Informed by Africanist ambitions


ANC and links with communism

Communists accepted idea of two phase resolution first achieve democratic revolution then socialist
National Party banned the Communist Party in 1950
Included socially diverse group of white and black intellectuals


Liberal Party

Significant group of white liberals emerged
Highly critical of apartheid and believed in an extension of black civil rights
Formed liberal party in 1953


Defiance Campaign

New militancy found particular focus in campaign
Groups of volunteers to break racially based restrictions such as curfews and segregated facilities to risk arrest
With Indian Congress
Influenced by non violent civil disobedience of Gandhi


East London background

East Bank location, East London combative heart Defiance Campaign
Poverty reflected in high levels of infant mortality
Campaign began there in 1952


Practice of Defiance Campaign in East London

Sat on white only benches in town, urinated in white only public toilets and refused to pay fines
Some advocated violence, police informer stoned and chased
Minister of Justice banned public gatherings for a month


Defiance campaign East London- November

Meeting of 800- threw sticks and stones at police
Police unsuccessfully ordered gathering to disperse and following a baton charge claimed a shot was fired
Police then opened fire
Official reports say 7 African deaths, 18 seriously injured, 2 whites killed
ANC call of Defiance Campaign nationally


Significance of East London

Most sustained example of political mobilisation of time
Leaders Gwentshe and Fazzie less famous that ANC leaders yet led more successful campaign than those in big cities
Lost control of movement turned into vehicle for unruly youths and crowd violence


Defiance as a problematic strategy

Leadership of movement vulnerable
Offering themselves for arrest- possibly disabling movement
Too much of a risk for many to take


Women and the ANC

Some of the leaders held conservative and patriarchal views
20,000 march on union buildings in protestn of passes, Pretoria 1956


The freedom charter

Congress Alliance list core political beliefs
Thousands submit suggestions
Revealed in rally in Kliptown, Soweto
Clear summary of the principles of the Congress movement
Garnering international support
Laid foundation for future political mobilisation


Difference between the Africanists and ANC

Thought non Africans were gaining too much influence in the congress movement
Complete independence and freedom implied the return of land
Wanted more confrontational direct action
Tried to create separate provincial organisations


Political opposition in 1948

No single black opposition group
Divided by geographic zone, race, class and interest
ANC established in 1912
Difficult to unify the diverse African population or challenge white power directly
Popular politics included strikes, bus boycotts, squatter movements to occupy land, street protests and mass rallies