Gastro - Pathology (Part 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Gastro - Pathology (Part 1) Deck (200)
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1

This is a barium enema x-ray of a patient with known colorectal cancer. What is the name of this classical appearance?

Apple core lesion

2

Salivary gland tumors are generally _____ (benign/malignant).

Benign

3

Where is the most common location for a salivary gland tumor?

Parotid gland

4

A patient presents with a painless, movable mass in a salivary gland. The mass is removed and found to be benign. It later recurs. What type of tumor is it?

Pleomorphic adenoma

5

Name the benign tumor composed of heterotopic salivary gland tissue trapped in a lymph node, surrounded by lymphatic tissue.

Warthin's tumor

6

What is the most common malignant salivary gland tumor?

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma

7

Achalasia results from the failure of what process to occur?

Relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter

8

In patients with achalasia, the lower esophageal sphincter cannot relax as a result of the loss of what source of innervation?

The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus

9

What is the most common presenting symptom of achalasia?

Dysphagia

10

In patients with achalasia, what test yields a classic diagnostic image?

Barium swallow

11

Describe the findings of achalasia on barium swallow.

Bird's beak appearance: dilated proximal esophagus with tapering at the lower esophageal sphincter

12

Achalasia is associated with an increased risk of what malignancy?

Esophageal carcinoma

13

Secondary achalasia can result from what parasitic disease endemic to South America?

Chagas' disease

14

What is the underlying pathophysiology of dysphagia associated with CREST?

There is esophageal dysmotility (poor peristalsis) and low esophageal pressure proximal to the lower esophageal sphincter

15

A patient with a history of asthma presents with a nonproductive cough and chest pain that is not associated with activity. It is worse with recumbency and is not relieved by inhalers or nitroglycerin. What is the likely diagnosis?

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

16

An alcoholic is brought into the emergency department vomiting copious amounts of blood. The condition this patient likely has causes painless bleeding from which vessels?

Submucosal veins in the lower one third of the esophagus, forming varices

17

A 45-year-old woman presents to the emergency department with a five-hour history of vomiting and retching. In the last hour, her vomitus was bloody and painful. What is the likely cause of her hematemesis?

Mallory-Weiss tears

18

A patient presents with chest pain after severe vomiting and is found to have substernal crepitus. What is the diagnosis?

Boerhaave syndrome (remember: "been-heaving syndrome")

19

Ingestion of what compound classically causes esophageal strictures?

Lye; strictures are also seen with gastroesophageal reflux disease

20

Esophagitis is commonly associated with what three etiologies?

Reflux, infection, or chemical ingestion

21

Which three infectious agents can cause esophagitis?

Herpes simplex virus type 1, cytomegalovirus, and Candida

22

Plummer-Vinson syndrome has a triad of what symptoms?

Dysphagia due to esophageal webs, glossitis, and iron deficiency anemia

23

A patient is having difficulty swallowing. He has a swollen, tender tongue that appears smooth. Laboratory tests reveal iron deficiency anemia. What is the most likely diagnosis?

Plummer-Vinson syndrome

24

Is Barrett's esophagus an example of glandular dysplasia, hyperplasia, neoplasia, or metaplasia?

Metaplasia

25

In patients with Barrett's esophagus, there is a replacement of _____ _____ epithelium with _____ epithelium.

Nonkeratinized squamous; intestinal (columnar)

26

What causes Barrett's esophagus?

Chronic acid reflux resulting in epithelial metaplasia

27

What specific malignancy is associated with Barrett's esophagus?

Adenocarcinoma (remember: BARRett's = Becomes Adenocarcinoma, Results from Reflux)

28

What are two behavioral risk factors for esophageal cancer?

Alcohol use and cigarette use

29

List four pathologic states of the esophagus that are risk factors for esophageal cancer.

Barrett's esophagus, diverticuli, esophagitis, achalasia, and esophageal webs

30

In the United States, which type of esophageal cancer is most common?

Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus have a roughly equal incidence