Gastro - Pathology (Part 3) Flashcards Preview

S1 - Gastrointestinal > Gastro - Pathology (Part 3) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gastro - Pathology (Part 3) Deck (78)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is the finding seen in this image and what is the associated disease?

String sign; Crohn's disease

2

Pictured is the large intestine of a 25-year-old female with a history of bloody diarrhea and weight loss. What is the likely diagnosis?

Ulcerative colitis (pseudopolyps)

3

What is the name for this classic ocular finding, and with which disease is it associated?

Kayser-Fleischer ring; associated with Wilson's disease

4

What cancer is associated with Wilson's disease?

Hepatocellular carcinoma

5

What movement disorder is associated with Wilson's disease?

Choreiform movements due to preferential copper deposition in the basal ganglia

6

With what medication are patients with Wilson's disease treated?

Penicillamine

7

With what pattern of inheritance is Wilson's disease passed?

Autosomal recessive

8

What specific type of anemia is associated with Wilson's disease?

Hemolytic anemia (remember ABCD to recall the other common findings: Asterixis, Basal ganglia degeneration, Ceruloplasmin [decreased], Cirrhosis, Corneal deposits, Copper accumulation, Carcinoma (hepatocellular), Choreiform movements, and Dementia)

9

A 30-year-old patient presents with new-onset dementia, choreiform movements, and flapping hand tremor; he also has severely elevated liver enzymes and discolored rings around his irises on ocular exam. What lab results will confirm the diagnosis? How will you treat the patient?

This patient has Wilson's disease. Decreased ceruloplasmin; chelation with penicillamine

10

Hemochromatosis classically affects what three organs?

Liver, skin, and pancreas

11

Hemochromatosis classically causes what liver finding?

Micronodular cirrhosis

12

A man presents to the office with new-onset insulin-dependent diabetes. His skin is darkly pigmented and he is found to have elevated liver enzymes. What is his likely diagnosis?

Hemochromatosis

13

Iron deposition in the heart due to hemochromatosis can lead to what condition?

Congestive heart failure secondary to restrictive cardiomyopathy

14

Hemochromatosis is associated with an increased risk of what cancer?

Hepatocellular carcinoma

15

With what pattern of inheritance is primary hemochromatosis passed?

Autosomal recessive

16

True or False: It is possible to develop hemochromatosis without being genetically predisposed to the disease.

True (secondary hemochromatosis); due to recurrent blood transfusions

17

What is the most common cause of secondary hemochromatosis?

Chronic transfusion therapy

18

Describe ferritin capacity, iron capacity, and total iron-binding capacity and transferrin saturation in patients with hemochromatosis.

High; high; low; high

19

What two treatments are often used for hemochromatosis?

Repeated phlebotomy and deferoxamine chelation

20

Hemochromatosis is associated with what genetic marker?

Human leukocyte antigen A3

21

Is primary sclerosing cholangitis intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both?

Both; the entire biliary tree is affected

22

What is the underlying change in primary sclerosing cholangitis?

Fibrosis of the bile ducts

23

What is likely to be found on biopsy of a patient with primary biliary cirrhosis?

Lymphocytic infiltrate and granulomas

24

What is the appearance of primary sclerosing cholangitis on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography?

Alternating strictures and dilation of the bile ducts, which is also called " beading"

25

Which symptoms are common in the presentation of biliary tract disease?

Jaundice, light stool, pruritus, dark urine

26

What disease is associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis?

Ulcerative colitis

27

Which autoantibodies are seen in the serum of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis?

Antimitochondrial antibodies

28

The biliary stasis caused by PSC can be so severe as to cause liver failure, a process known as what?

Secondary biliary cirrhosis

29

What abnormal lab results are common to most forms of biliary tract disease?

Increased conjugated bilirubin, cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase

30

Primary biliary cirrhosis is commonly associated with what autoimmune disorders?

Rheumatoid arthritis, CREST syndrome, celiac disease