What two blood vessels and one nerve run anterior to the spine at the level of the umbilicus?
The aorta, inferior vena cava, and sympathetic trunk run together along the spine.
Identify the branch of the abdominal aorta that supplies the foregut.
(A) celiac trunk
What is the most superficial muscle group making up the lateral abdominal wall?
What is the deepest muscle group making up the lateral abdominal wall?
What is the name of the connective tissue that lies between the rectus muscles at the midline?
What individual layers of fascia join to make the rectus sheath?
Fascia of the external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominus
Which parts of the duodenum are retroperitoneal?
The second, third, and fourth parts of the duodenum
Name two major organs that lie completely in the retroperitoneal space.
The kidneys and adrenal glands
What part of the pancreas is not found in the retroperitoneal space?
The tail of the pancreas
Which two parts of the urinary system are retroperitoneal?
The kidney and ureters
Which portion of the colon is not retroperitoneal?
In the gastrointestinal tract, the falciform ligament connects which two structures?
The liver and the abdominal wall
In the gastrointestinal tract, the gastrohepatic ligament connects which two structures?
The liver and the lesser curvature of the stomach
In the gastrointestinal tract, the gastrocolic ligament connects which two structures?
The transverse colon and the greater curvature of the stomach
In the gastrointestinal tract, the gastrosplenic ligament connects which two structures?
The spleen and the greater curvature of the stomach
In the gastrointestinal tract, the splenorenal ligament connects which two structures?
The spleen and the posterior abdominal wall
The _____ ligament connects the liver and the duodenum.
The falciform ligament contains what structure?
The ligamentum teres
The hepatoduodenal ligament contains what structures?
The portal triad (the portal vein, the portal artery, and the common bile duct)
The gastrohepatic ligament contains what structures?
The gastric arteries
The gastrocolic ligament contains what structures?
The gastroepiploic arteries
The splenorenal ligament contains what structures?
The splenic artery and the splenic vein
From what fetal structure is the falciform ligament derived?
Fetal umbilical vein
The portal triad can be compressed through what opening to control bleeding?
The omental foramen (also known as the epiploic foramen of Winslow)
What gastrointestinal ligament can be cut to access the lesser sac during surgery?
The gastrohepatic ligament
What ligament is part of the greater omentum?
What ligament separates the greater and lesser sacs?
Which layer of the muscularis externa is closer to the lumen: the circular layer or the longitudinal layer?
The circular layer
List three components of the gut wall mucosa.
Epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosa
What is the primary function of the epithelium of the gut wall mucosa?