Final Exam - Chapter 11 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Exam - Chapter 11 Deck (24)
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1

strategic decisions

decisions that set the course for an organization. Changing strategic direction or introducing a new product that requires years of development would represent this type of decision.

2

tactical decisions

decisions about how things will get done. For example, issuing a coupon to increase sales would fall into this category.

3

operational decisions

decisions that employees make each day to run the organization. Helping serve customer needs through routine interactions or order fulfillment would be an example of this type of decision.

4

rational decision-making model

a series of steps that decision makers should consider if their goal is to maximize the quality of their outcomes and make the best choice.

5

analysis paralysis

The availability of too much information and too many choices. more and more time is spent on gathering information and thinking about it, but no decisions actually get made.

6

satisfice

accepting the first alternative that meets your minimum criteria.

7

problem identification

the step in which the need for problem solving becomes apparent.

8

immersion

the step in which the decision maker thinks about the problem consciously and gathers information.

9

incubation

the individual sets the problem aside and does not think about it for a while.

10

illumination

the insight moment, when the solution to the problem becomes apparent to the person, usually when it is least expected.

11

fluency

the number of ideas a person is able to generate.

12

flexibility

how different the ideas are from one another.

13

originality

how unique a person’s ideas are.

14

SCAMPER

a checklist tool that helps you think of changes you can make to an existing marketplace to create a new one—a new product, a new service, or both.

Substitute
Combine
Adapt
Modify
Put to other uses
Eliminate
Rearrange

15

brainstorming

a group process of generating ideas that follow a set of guidelines, including no criticism of ideas during the brainstorming process, the idea that no suggestion is too crazy, and building on other ideas (piggybacking).

16

wildstorming

the group focuses on ideas that are impossible and then imagines what would need to happen to make them possible.

17

anchoring and adjustment bias

the tendency for individuals to rely too heavily on arbitrary numbers, irrelevant traits, or facts when making decisions.

18

availability bias

information that is more readily available is seen as more likely to occur.

19

escalation of commitment bias

individuals continue on a failing course of action after information reveals this may be a poor path to follow.

20

fundamental attribution error

a bias that exists when positive outcomes are seen as a function of personal characteristics while negative outcomes are attributed to external circumstances.

21

correlation and causality

confusing correlation with causality

22

groupthink

a tendency to avoid a critical evaluation of ideas the group favors.

23

delphi Technique

a group process that utilizes written responses to a series of questionnaires instead of physically bringing individuals together to make a decision.

24

nominal group technique (NGT)

a technique designed to help with group decision making by ensuring that all members participate fully.