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Psychology A2 - Research Methods > Ethics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ethics Deck (22)
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1

Who publishes the ethical guidelines for psychologists?

the BPS, British Psychologists Society

2

When do ethical issues arise?

When there is a discrepancy/dilemma between what the researcher wants to do to conduct their research and the rights of the participants

3

What do you have to obtain from the BPS before conducting an experiment?

Ethical Approval

4

Name the two ethical issues involving consent

Prior general consent
Presumptive consent

5

What is Prior general consent?

Getting consent from a fully informed participant

6

What is a weakness of obtaining prior general consent?

Encourages potential demand characteristics

7

What is a strength of obtaining prior general consent?

You are not breaching any rights of your participants

8

What is presumptive consent?

Taking a sample to represent the desired participants and assuming from their response

9

What is a strength of presumptive consent?

Eliminates demand characteristics and social desirability

10

What is a weakness of presumptive consent?

Pps could use their right to withdraw if they end up in a situation they do not feel comfortable or they feel is against their rights - therefore voiding all research

11

What are the 3 methods psychologists can use to deal with the deception dilemma of getting consent? (DRP)

Debriefing
Retrospective informed consent
Protecting Pps from Harm

12

What is debriefing?

 Occurs after the research is completed
 True aim of the research is revealed to the participant in order to restore the prior state of the participant

13

What are the advantages of debriefing?

Eliminates demand characteristics because they don’t have to be fully informed from the start

This can be used to inform participants of deception, gain consent, and ensure participants leave in the same state

14

What is retrospective informed consent?

Allows participants to make an informed decision as to whether they want to withdraw or whether they want their results to be taken any further

15

What are the advantages of retrospective informed consent?

- Overcomes demand characteristics because they don’t have to be fully informed from the start – reminded of right to withdraw

16

What is 'Protecting pps from harm'

 Participants should be reminded of their right to withdraw
 Psychologists have a duty to stop any research that they believe is causing psychological or physical harm, even if the participant is willing to continue
 It is important that participants in psychological research are debriefed following an experiment
 This can be used to inform participants of deception, gain consent, and ensure participants leave in the same state

17

What 4 categories do the BPS divide ethical considerations into?

1. Respect
2. Competence
3. Responsibility
4. Integrity

18

4 categories that the BPS divide ethical considerations into - 1. Respect

- Informed consent
- Confidentiality and anonymity
- Right to withdraw
- Deception
- Observation research - don't observe unless informed consent is given or at least you are in a place where people would expect to be observed, e.g. shopping centre not church

19

4 categories that the BPS divide ethical considerations into - 2. Competence

- should be committed to the code of ethics and to maintaining competence
- They should recognise and resolve ethical dilemmas

20

4 categories that the BPS divide ethical considerations into - 3. Responsibility

- Protection of participants from harm
- Debriefing

21

4 categories that the BPS divide ethical considerations into - 4. Integrity

- Should be honest, accurate, clear and fair when dealing with people - including their participants
- Includes being honest when recording and analysing data

22

Evaluation of ethics

+ It is good that ethics are regularly revised as expectations change. E.g. would women/other aces received the same respect many years ago?

- The BPS is guidance, not rules
- Too vague and can be difficult to apply
- The guidelines are difference across countries
- Ethics committees make decisions about whether research projects can be conducted. Some are more rigorous than others. The committees should include non-psychologists also.
- People need repercussions of breaking the code of ethics, but expulsion from the BPS is not much of a threat.