Flashcards in Non-experimental techniques and Case Studies Deck (13)
What are non-experimental techniques?
Observations that are used to collect data
What are the two types of observation?
Naturalistic and controlled
Describe a naturalistic observation
- (e.g Rache 1970)
- natural setting of participants
- no manipulation of setting
- (if the researcher does not partake it is called a non-participant observation; and vice versa if they do partake (participant observation)
What is the disadvantage of a naturalistic observation?
- Disadvantages: behaviour of people or animals the researcher is observing will change
Describe a controlled observation
- (e.g. Baddeley 1966)
- The researcher controls some of the variable – the amount of control depends on the setting
- In a lab experiment, the researcher can easily control almost all variables
- In a field experiment, the researcher has less control but can still manipulate several variables
A researcher must describe whether they will disclose to participants that they are being observed, what are the strengths and weaknesses of doing so?
+ Strength = participants being aware
makes it more natural
- Weaknesses = undisclosed is
unethical as participants are
unable to give informed consent
What two methods are there for structuring observations and what are they?
Structured = DV decided in advance
Unstructured = No decisions made
Before you can record a behaviour it must be .... ?
What does it mean to operationalize a behaviour?
To define it precisely
Once behaviours have been identified an observation schedule is created to act as a specific tally chart to record behaviours throughout experiment, why is it important to do this?
It is important to check that observers are all
interpreting the behaviour categories in the
What is a case study?
Studies of one (or a very small group) of participants
Why are case studies useful?
Useful as they allow researchers to investigate unique cases in a lot of detail