Reliability and Validity Flashcards Preview

Psychology A2 - Research Methods > Reliability and Validity > Flashcards

Flashcards in Reliability and Validity Deck (24)
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What is reliability?

> Scientists need their results to be reliable in order for them to be considered valid
> Results are reliable if they are consistent; this means that a test gives the same results each time
> It is the best way to test reliability of an experiment is to repeat it.
- If the same results are obtained then the experiment is reliable


Name two methods of testing reliability

Test-Retest method
Split-half method


What is a limitation of the Test-Retest method of testing reliability

> Open questions and unstructured interviews lack reliability because they are difficult to replicate


What is Split-half method of testing reliability

Taking half of a sample of questionnaire answers and comparing them to the other half to check reliability – (or, even numbered vs. odd numbered questions)
A significant positive correlation between the two responses would indicate reliability


What is inner-observer reliability?

> The problem with making observations, especially of behaviour, is that observers can interpret the same event differently


How can we avoid issues with inner-observer reliability?

More than one observer often necessary
- However, rates of reliability between
them (should be at least 85%) can differ
> Ensuring consistency between observers findings


How can inner-observer reliability be assessed?

> Observer reliability can be assessed by measuring the extent to which different observers achieve similar results when observing and scoring the same participants


How can Inner-observer reliability be improved? (2 methods)

- All observers should be trained
thoroughly in the techniques they’re
required to used prior to the data collection.

- Operational definitions should be fully


How do we know a test is valid?

> A test is valid if it measures what it has been designed to measure


Give an example of validity, (using manufacturing rulers)

> For example: if a manufacturer had printed the scale on a ruler incorrectly we would think we were measuring validity, but we’re not – therefore the test is not valid


What are the two types of validity?

Internal and External


What is Internal Validity?

Shows there is a casual relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable in an experiment


What is External Validity?

Shows the results of an experiment can be generalised to other times and places


What are the two types of external validity?

Population and Ecological Validity


What is population validity?

do the findings apply to target population (inc. appropriate sample)


What is ecological validity?

Do findings generalise to other situations:
o E.g. lab studies = low ecological validity (false situations) but high reliability


What are the 3 ways of measuring validity?

Face, concurrent, predictive validity


What is Face validity?
(measure of validity)

simplest method of testing validity. It involves looking at the test and seeing if it looks as if it’s measuring what it’s supposed to be


What is Concurrent validity?
(measure of validity)

uses comparisons to existing results. If a past experiment that measures the same variable is known to be valid, a new test can be compared to it


What is predictive validity?
(measure of validity)

requires that a test can be used to make accurate predictions about future results, before it can be considered valid


Define reliability

This refers to how consistent a study or measuring device is. A measurement is said to be reliable or consistent if the measurement can produce similar results if used again in similar circumstances.


What is context validity?
(External validity)

This refers to the extent to which research finding can be generalised to settings other than that of the original research. Psychologists often call this 'ecological validity'. It is sometimes assumed to beam applicable to everyday life, implying that this means 'naturalistic.' However, ecological validity more accurately means more applicable applicable across different contexts whatever these may be.


What is temporal validity?
(external validity)

This is concerned with the 'shelf life' of research findings and whether they are able to endure over time


What is Population validity?
(external validity)

This refers to the extent to which research findings can be generalised to people other than those actually involved in the actual research.