Flashcards in EPPP Test Questions Deck (310)
The Buckley Amendment establishes:
a. the right of parents or legal guardians of a child to inspect the child’s school records.
b. the right of patients to have access to their own hospital records.
c. the requirement for employers to make reasonable modifications to tests for applicants with disabilities.
d. the requirement for schools to provide a “free appropriate public education” to students with disabilities.
a. the right of parents or legal guardians of a child to inspect the child’s school records. - CORRECT Knowing that the Buckley Amendment is also known as the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) would have helped you identify the correct answer to this question. The Buckley Amendment states that any school district may be denied federal funds if parents or other legal guardians of students or students who have reached the age of majority are not given access to the students’ school records.
b. the right of patients to have access to their own hospital records. - Incorrect
c. the requirement for employers to make reasonable modifications to tests for applicants with disabilities. - Incorrect
d. the requirement for schools to provide a “free appropriate public education” to students with disabilities. - Incorrect
(Ethics & Professional Issues)
Students in an introductory psychology class are required to participate in one of the university's ongoing research projects. This practice is:
a. ethical as long as students can choose to participate in an alternative activity instead.
b. ethical as long as students are free to choose the research project they participate in.
c. ethical as long as informed consents are obtained from students before they participate.
d. clearly unethical.
a. ethical as long as students can choose to participate in an alternative activity instead. - CORRECT This issue is addressed by Standard 8.04 of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principle I.36 of the Canadian Code of Ethics. This answer is most consistent with ethical guidelines. Standard 8.04(b), for example, states that “when research participation is a course requirement or an opportunity for extra credit, the prospective participant is given the choice of equitable alternative activities.”
b. ethical as long as students are free to choose the research project they participate in. - Incorrect
c. ethical as long as informed consents are obtained from students before they participate. - Incorrect
d. clearly unethical. - Incorrect
(Ethics & Professional Issues)
Dr. Pavel Petrovich, a licensed psychologist, has been seeing a client in therapy for over fourteen months with no apparent change in the client's symptoms. Dr. Petrovich should:
a. advise the client that he is ethically obligated to terminate therapy.
b. raise for discussion the possibility of termination and referral to another therapist.
c. search the literature for discussions of similar cases that have been treated and reported by others.
d. continue seeing the client since fourteen months is not an unusually long time for therapy to continue without a significant change in symptoms.
b. raise for discussion the possibility of termination and referral to another therapist. -
CORRECT Termination of therapy is addressed in Standard 10.10 of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principle II.37 of the Canadian Code of Ethics. The action described in this answer is most consistent with ethical requirements. Standard 10.10(a), for example, states that “psychologists terminate therapy when it becomes reasonably clear that the client/patient no longer needs the service, is not likely to benefit, or is being harmed by continued service,” and Standard 10.10(c) states that, prior to termination, psychologists “suggest alternative service providers as appropriate.”
d. continue seeing the client since fourteen months is not an unusually long time for therapy to continue without a significant change in symptoms. - Incorrect In many cases, fourteen months is sufficiently long to consider the possibility of termination when a client has shown “no apparent change” in symptoms.
(Ethics & Professional Issues)
Whenever her clients cancel an appointment with Dr. Penny Pincher within less than 24 hours of the appointment, Dr. Pincher routinely bills the client’s insurance company for her full hourly fee. This practice is:
a. illegal and unethical.
b. illegal but ethical.
c. legal and ethical.
d. legal but unethical.
a. illegal and unethical. - CORRECT The practice described in this question represents insurance fraud, which is both illegal and unethical. Billing an insurance company for missed appointments would be acceptable only if the company agreed to this practice (which is, of course, unlikely). For questions about insurance coverage, always choose the answer that is most consistent with legal and ethical requirements.
b. illegal but ethical. Incorrect
c. legal and ethical. Incorrect
d. legal but unethical. Incorrect
(Ethics & Professional Issues)
In most situations, the “holder of the privilege” is:
a. the therapist.
b. the client.
c. the therapist and client jointly.
d. the court.
b. the client. - CORRECT Privilege is a legal term that refers to “privileged communication.” Privilege is a legal requirement that prohibits (with some exceptions) confidential client information from being disclosed in legal proceedings. The client is the holder of the privilege – i.e., in most circumstances, only the client can determine when confidential information may be disclosed.
c. the therapist and client jointly. - Incorrect
d. the court. - Incorrect
(Ethics & Professional Issues)
A graduate student’s dissertation chair, Dr. X, turns out to be of little help, and the student ends up obtaining advice and assistance from an associate professor, Dr. Z. Dr. X does review the dissertation when it is completed and she is listed as the dissertation chair. Several months later, the student decides to write an article for a professional journal that is based his dissertation research. In terms of publication credit:
a. Dr. Z should be listed as first author if her contribution was substantial.
b. Dr. Z should be listed as second author if her contribution warrants it.
c. Dr. X should be listed as second author since she was the student’s official dissertation chair.
d. Dr. Y and Dr. Z should be listed as co-authors.
b. Dr. Z should be listed as second author if her contribution warrants it.- CORRECT Publication credit is addressed in Standard 8.12 of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principle III.7 of the Canadian Code of Ethics. Of the responses given, this one is best because it addresses the need to consider Dr. Z’s contribution to the research project (and Dr. X’s lack of contribution). Ethical guidelines emphasize that it is a person's contribution, not his or her position or status, that determines publication credit. Moreover, when a research study is based on a student's dissertation, the student should ordinarily be listed as first author.
(Ethics & Professional Issues Online - 5144)
Dr. Carl Carlson is a licensed psychologist and professor in the psychology department at a large university. He is approached by a graduate student, Marla M., age 36, who asks him if he’d like to attend a baseball game on Friday night. Dr. Carlson is divorced and finds Marla to be a very attractive woman. In terms of ethical guidelines, if Dr. Carlson accepts Marla’s invitation, he will be:
a. clearly violating ethical guidelines.
b. acting ethically since he is not the one who initiated a potential relationship.
c. acting ethically as long as Marla is a student in a department other than the psychology department and will not be taking any classes in the psychology department.
d. acting ethically as long as he does not become sexually involved with Marla until she is no longer affiliated with the university.
c. acting ethically as long as Marla is a student in a department other than the psychology department and will not be taking any classes in the psychology department. - CORRECT Dating students is ordinarily prohibited or discouraged because doing so represents a multiple relationship. If Marla is a graduate student in another department, a relationship with her would not represent a multiple relationship because Dr. Carlson is not likely to be her instructor or advisor.
a. clearly violating ethical guidelines.- Incorrect Dr. Carlson may or may not be violating ethical guidelines, depending on the circumstances (see response c).
b. acting ethically since he is not the one who initiated a potential relationship. - Incorrect The fact that Marla initiated the potential relationship is not relevant.
d. acting ethically as long as he does not become sexually involved with Marla until she is no longer affiliated with the university. - Incorrect As long as Dr. Carlson does not have “supervisory, evaluative, or other authority” over Marla, it would be acceptable for Dr. Carlson to become sexually involved with Marla (see Standards 3.08 and 7.07 of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principle II.28 of the Canadian Code of Ethics). (Note that personal relationships with students might be prohibited by university policy but that this question is asking about ethical guidelines.)
(Ethics & Professional Issues)
Long-term potentiation is believed to play a critical role in which of the following?
A. emotional experience and expression
B. hunger and thirst
C. sexual behavior
D. learning and memory
D. learning and memory (CORRECT) LTP is a widely accepted model for the synaptic changes that underlie learning and memory. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a physiological process that involves physical modification of nerve synapses, especially at glutamate receptors in the hippocampus.
The Leiter International Performance Scale would be most useful for measuring the intelligence of:
A. adults with visual impairments.
B. children under the age of two.
C. children with hearing impairments.
D. adults who are mentally retarded.
C. children with hearing impairments - (CORRECT) A distinctive feature of the Leiter International Performance Scale is its non-reliance on verbal instructions or responses. Because of this feature, it is an appropriate test for individuals with hearing and language impairments.The Leiter International Performance Scale was developed as a culture-fair test for children ages 2 through 12.
A. adults with visual impairments - Incorrect The Haptic Intelligence Scale can be used to assess the intelligence of individuals with visual impairments.
B. children under the age of two - Incorrect Tests used to assess the intellectual development of infants under age 2 include the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the Fagan Test of Intelligence.
D. adults who are mentally retarded - Incorrect The intelligence of individuals with mental retardation is commonly assessed with the Stanford-Binet.
___________ is caused by an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles.
A. Spina bifida
C. Hydrocephalus - (CORRECT) The accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles (usually as the result of an obstruction) causes hydrocephalus which results in increased intracranial pressure and can lead to brain damage. Knowing that hydrocephalus means “water head” would have helped you identify it as the correct answer to this question.
A. Spina bifida - Incorrect Spinal bifida is a neural tube defect caused by a failure of the fetus’s spine to close appropriately during early development.
B. Meningitis - Incorrect Meningitis is inflammation of the membranes of the brain and spinal cord and is a possible cause of acquired hydrocephalus.
D. Encephalitis - Incorrect Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain that is usually caused by a virus.
A company president is concerned about the low motivation and satisfaction of her employees and, as a result, institutes a wage and bonus (financial) incentive program for all employees. Six months later, the president finds that her efforts have not increased the employees' job motivation or satisfaction. This result is best predicted by which of the following theories?
A. ERG theory
B. expectancy theory
C. equity theory
D. two-factor theory
D. two-factor theory - (CORRECT) According to two-factor theory, lower-level needs such as physiological and safety needs have little effect on job satisfaction or motivation when they are fulfilled but produce dissatisfaction when they are unfulfilled. In contrast, higher-level needs have little effect on satisfaction and motivation when they are unfulfilled but increase satisfaction and motivation when they are fulfilled. Two-factor theory would, therefore, predict that financial incentives, which address lower-level needs, would not increase motivation and satisfaction. For the exam, you want to be familiar with the basic assumptions and predictions of the major theories of motivation.
A. ERG theory - Incorrect ERG theory predicts that people have three basic needs – existence, relatedness, and growth. From the perspective of ERG theory, opportunities for increased compensation may help satisfy an individual’s needs and thereby lead to increased satisfaction and motivation.
B. expectancy theory - Incorrect Expectancy theory predicts that valued outcomes lead to increased satisfaction and motivation. There is no information provided in the question suggesting that the wage and incentive program is not valued by employees, so this is not the best response.
C. equity theory - Incorrect Equity theory predicts that motivation is related to the comparisons we make between our input/outcome ratio and the input/outcome ratios of workers performing similar jobs. There is no information given in this questions suggesting that this type of comparison is responsible for the employees’ lack of response to the wage and incentive program.
Agraphia, acalculia, finger agnosia, and right-left confusion are symptoms of which of the following?
A. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
B. Addison’s disease
C. Gerstmann’s syndrome
D. Geschwind syndrome
C. Gerstmann’s syndrome - (CORRECT) These are the characteristic symptoms of Gerstmann’s syndrome. The four symptoms listed in this question are caused by damage to the left (dominant) angular gyrus, which is located at the point of convergence of the parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes.
A. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease - Incorrect Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare degenerative brain disease that usually leads to dementia and is characterized by memory loss, behavioral changes, loss of coordination, and visual disturbances.
B. Addison’s disease - Incorrect Addison’s disease is due to a lower-than-normal production of cortisol by the adrenal glands. Its symptoms include weight loss, orthostatic hypotension, weakness, fatigue, and hyperpigmentation.
D. Geschwind syndrome - Incorrect Gerschwind syndrome is a personality syndrome associated with temporal lobe epilepsy and is characterized by circumstantiality, hypergraphia, alterations in sexuality, emotional volatility, and, in some cases, hyperreligiosity.
__________ memory is the aspect of memory that is involved in the recall of information acquired within the past few hours to days.
C. Long-term - (CORRECT) Information acquired in the past few hours to days would be part of recent long-term memory. The three-store model of memory divides it into three components: sensory, short-term, and long-term memory.
A. Working - Incorrect Working memory is part of short-term memory and is responsible for the temporary storage and manipulation of information (e.g., remembering a phone number until you have dialed it).
B. Sensory - Incorrect Sensory memory stores sensory information for very brief periods (up to several seconds).
D. Prospective - Incorrect Prospective memory refers to the ability to "remember to remember” (e.g., to remember a future appointment).
(Learning Theory & Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies)
An educational psychologist designs a screening test to identify underachieving first- and second-grade children who have a learning disability. The psychologist will probably be most concerned that her test has adequate __________ validity.
C. concurrent - (CORRECT) As noted above, concurrent validity (a type of criterion-related validity) is of concern when the purpose of a test is to estimate an individual's current status on some external criterion. Screening tests are usually used to estimate the results of a more thorough evaluation (the criterion) which, in this case, would be a more thorough diagnostic procedure. When a test developer wants to use a screening test to estimate or evaluate current behavior, he/she will be most interested in the test's concurrent validity.
A. content - Incorrect Content validity is of most concern when test items are expected to be a representative sample of a particular content domain.
B. construct - Incorrect Construct validity is of concern for tests designed to measure a hypothetical trait or construct (e.g., motivation, self-esteem).
D. predictive - Incorrect The screening test is being used to estimate current status, not to predict future status. Therefore, concurrent validity would be of greater concern than would predictive validity.
A family therapist using the structural approach of Salvador Minuchin would most likely:
A. clarify boundaries between family members in order to reduce enmeshment.
B. work initially with the most differentiated family member.
C. use a multiple-therapist team to prevent any one therapist from becoming "triangulated" into the family system.
D. issue specific "directives" designed to counteract dysfunctional processes.
A. clarify boundaries between family members in order to reduce enmeshment.- (CORRECT) Even if you are unfamiliar with Minuchin, you may have been able to guess that structural therapy would be concerned with boundaries. Structural family therapists view family dysfunction as being related to boundaries that are too diffuse (enmeshed) or too rigid (disengaged). As its name implies, structural family therapy focuses on altering the family's structure in order to change the behavior patterns of family members.
B. work initially with the most differentiated family member - Incorrect This is more characteristic of Bowen’s approach to family therapy.
C. use a multiple-therapist team to prevent any one therapist from becoming "triangulated" into the family system - Incorrect Minuchin's approach does not involve the use of multiple-therapist teams.
D. issue specific "directives" designed to counteract dysfunctional processes - Incorrect The issuance of directives is more characteristic of strategic family therapy than of structural family therapy.
A meta-analysis of the research by Baltes and his colleagues (1999) indicates that instituting flexitime in an organization is likely to have the greatest beneficial effects on which of the following?
B. self-rated performance
C. satisfaction with work schedule
A. absenteeism - (CORRECT) B. B. Baltes et al. report an average effect size of .93 for absenteeism [Flexible and compressed workweek schedules: A meta-analysis of their effects on work-related criteria, Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(4), 496-513, 1999]. Unfortunately, the research on the effects of flexitime and other alternative work schedules has produced inconsistent results. However, this question is asking about a specific meta-analysis of the research.
B. self-rated performance - Incorrect These investigators obtained an average effect size of .04 for self-rated performance.
C. satisfaction with work schedule - Incorrect The average effect size for satisfaction with work schedule was .32.
D. productivity - Incorrect The average effect size for productivity was .45.
A college freshman obtains a score of 150 on his English final exam, a score of 100 on his math exam, a score of 55 on his chemistry exam, and a score of 30 on his history exam. The means and standard deviations for these tests are, respectively, 125 and 20 for the English exam, 90 and 10 for the math exam, 45 and 5 for the chemistry exam, and 30 and 5 for the history exam. Based on this information, you can conclude that the young man's test performance was best on which exam?
C. chemistry - (CORRECT) In this case, the student's English score is equivalent to a z-score of +1.25, his math score is equivalent to a z-score of +1.0, his chemistry score is equivalent to a z-score of +2.0, and his history score is equivalent to a z-score of 0. Therefore, the student obtained the highest score on the chemistry test. The raw scores on different tests may be compared by converting the scores to z-scores, which is done by subtracting the mean from the examinee’s raw score to calculate a deviation score and then dividing the deviation score by the standard deviation.
A key accomplishment of Piaget's preoperational stage is the emergence of:
B. the object concept.
C. formal operations.
D. the symbolic function.
D. the symbolic function - (CORRECT) The ability for symbolic representation, which is necessary for language use, symbolic play, and deferred imitation, develops during the preoperational stage, which is characteristic of children aged 2 through 7. According to Piaget, the preoperational stage is characterized by the development of the symbolic function, which permits language use, symbolic play, and deferred imitation.
A. conservation - Incorrect Conservation refers to the knowledge that physical properties of objects remain invariant with transformations that do not involve addition or subtraction. Such knowledge is acquired between the ages of 7 and 11 years during the concrete operational period.
B. the object concept - Incorrect The object concept develops during the sensorimotor stage, which is characteristic of children from birth to two years.
C. formal operations - Incorrect Formal operations are characteristic of the final (formal operational) stage of cognitive development.
A therapist instructs a client who suffers from insomnia to polish his hardwood floors for at least two hours whenever he wakes up during the night. Apparently this therapist is familiar with the work of:
A. Luigia Boscolo.
B. Milton Erickson.
C. Salvador Minuchin.
D. Marquis de Sade.
B. Milton Erickson - (CORRECT) For the exam, you should have paradoxical techniques and ordeals associated with Milton Erickson and Jay Haley (who was strongly influenced by Erickson). The task described in the question is an example of an "ordeal."
A. Luigia Boscolo - Incorrect Luigi Boscolo is affiliated with the Milan systemic school of family therapy, which is not associated with the use of ordeals.
C. Salvador Minuchin - Incorrect The use of ordeals is more associated with Erickson and Haley than with Minuchin.
D. Marquis de Sade - Incorrect
Female applicants consistently obtain lower scores on a selection test than do male applicants. However, when they are hired, females perform as well on the job as do males. This situation illustrates which of the following?
A. differential validity
B. differential selection
C. adverse impact
D. unfairness - (CORRECT) The situation described in the question illustrates the EEOC’s definition of unfairness: “When members of one race, sex, or ethnic group characteristically obtain lower scores on a selection procedure than members of another group, and the differences in scores are not reflected in differences in a measure of job performance, use of the selection procedure may unfairly deny opportunities to members of the group that obtains the lower scores” (Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures, Section 14.B.8.a). This is a difficult question, but you may have been able to identify the correct answer through the process of elimination.
A. differential validity- Incorrect Differential validity occurs when a predictor has different validity coefficients for members of different groups. No information is given about the validity coefficients for males and females, so you cannot conclude that the selection test has differential validity.
B. differential selection - Incorrect Differential selection is a threat to the internal validity of a research study and is not relevant to this situation.
C. adverse impact - Incorrect The situation described in the question could lead to adverse impact if females are not hired because of their low scores on the predictor. However, the question does not state that the hiring rate for females is lower than the rate for males, so this is not the best response.
The belief that a child's misbehavior has one of four goals — i.e., attention, revenge, power, or to display inadequacy — is most consistent with:
A. Beck’s cognitive-behavioral therapy.
B. Adler’s individual psychology.
C. Perls’s Gestalt therapy.
D. Mahler’s object relations theory.
B. Adler’s individual psychology - (CORRECT) Dreikurs, an associate of Adler’s, described the misbehavior of children as attempts to belong, which reflect faulty beliefs about what it takes to belong (e.g., “I belong only when I'm the center of attention”). Adler believed that all behaviors are goal-directed and purposeful.
When the kappa statistic for a measure is .90, this indicates that the measure:
A. has adequate inter-rater reliability.
B. has adequate internal consistency reliability.
C. has low criterion-related validity.
D. has low incremental validity.
A. has adequate inter-rater reliability - (CORRECT) Reliability coefficients range from 0 to +1.0, so a coefficient of .90 indicates good reliability. Knowing that the kappa statistic (also known as the kappa coefficient) is a measure of inter-rater reliability would have enabled you to identify the correct response to this question.
B. has adequate internal consistency reliability - Incorrect The kappa statistic is a measure of inter-rater reliability, not internal consistency reliability.
C. has low criterion-related validity - Incorrect
D. has low incremental validity - Incorrect
For a Gestalt therapist, a primary goal of treatment is to help the client:
A. integrate the present with his/her past and future.
B. integrate the various aspects of the self.
C. develop a “success identity.”
D. develop a “healthy style of life.”
B. integrate the various aspects of the self - CORRECT A primary goal of gestalt therapy is to integrate all aspects of the self; i.e., one’s feelings, thoughts, and actions. For the exam, you want to know that, in Gestalt therapy, the primary goals are increased awareness and integration of all aspects of the self.
A. integrate the present with his/her past and future - Incorrect In Gestalt therapy, the focus is on the present. In fact, its founder, Fritz Perls, argued that “nothing exists but the now.”
C. develop a “success identity.” - Incorrect This is the goal of reality therapy.
D. develop a “healthy style of life.” - Incorrect This sounds more like Adlerian therapy.
Dr. La-Keysha Leonard, a licensed psychologist, has been seeing a prison inmate in group therapy for several months and is asked by the parole board to evaluate the inmate to assist with their decision regarding his parole. As an ethical psychologist, Dr. Leonard should:
A. agree to evaluate the inmate.
B. agree to evaluate the inmate only if she believes she can do so objectively and without bias.
C. agree to do so only if she is allowed to explain the purpose of the evaluation and the limits on confidentiality to the inmate.
D. refuse to evaluate the inmate for the purpose of parole.
D. refuse to evaluate the inmate for the purpose of parole - (CORRECT) This answer is most consistent with ethical guidelines prohibiting psychologists from becoming involved in multiple relationships that might impair their objectivity and with the APA’s Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists, which warns psychologists about the need for caution in dual relationships and roles in forensic settings (the actions described in answer a, b, and c do not constitute sufficient caution). The situation described in this question is addressed by general ethical guidelines for multiple relationships and in the APA’s Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists.
(Ethics and Professional Issues)
People rely on which of the following to determine how to act in specific situations (e.g., at a faculty meeting, at a wedding, or in a restaurant)?
D. life space
C. scripts - (CORRECT) Scripts (also known as event schemas) are a type of schema that consist of a sequence of events. Scripts provide the information needed to determine the appropriate behaviors for familiar events or situations. Researchers interested in social knowledge distinguish between several cognitive phenomena including schemas and prototypes.
A. heuristics - Incorrect Heuristics are “mental shortcuts” that help us process complex information.
B. prototypes - Incorrect Prototypes are similar to stereotypes and consist of a set of characteristics that are commonly associated with a particular category of people, objects, or events.
D. life space - Incorrect Life space is a key concept in Lewin’s (1951) field theory and consists of the individual and his/her environment.
The relationship of preadolescent siblings is best described as:
C. competitive and cooperative.
D. close and conflictual.
D. close and conflictual - (CORRECT) The research indicates that sibling relationships often involve contradictions, but the combination of closeness and conflict seems to be particularly characteristic of siblings during preadolescence. Even if you’re unfamiliar with the research, it makes sense that preadolescent relationships (or any relationship for that matter!) would involve a mixture of positive and negative aspects.
You would use the Solomon four-group design in order to:
A. eliminate carryover effects.
B. reduce demand characteristics.
C. evaluate the impact of pretesting.
D. evaluate the effects of history and maturation.
C. evaluate the impact of pretesting - (CORRECT) The purpose of the Solomon four-group design is to evaluate the impact of pretesting on a study’s internal and external validity. The Solomon four-group design combines the pretest-posttest control group design with the posttest only control group design.
(Statistics and Research Design)
During the second stage of Kohlberg’s preconventional level of moral development, children obey rules because:
A. they feel they have a personal duty to uphold rules and laws.
B. "everyone else is doing it."
C. doing so helps them avoid punishment.
D.doing so helps them satisfy their personal needs.
D.doing so helps them satisfy their personal needs - (CORRECT) During the instrumental hedonism stage, children consider the correct action to be the one that best satisfies their own personal needs. To illustrate this stage, Kohlberg described a 10-year old boy who, when asked what it means to be a good son, replied, "Be good to your father and he will be good to you." The preconventional level of moral development consists of two stages: punishment and obedience and instrumental hedonism.
A. they feel they have a personal duty to uphold rules and laws - Incorrect This is characteristic of the second stage of the conventional level.
B. "everyone else is doing it." - Incorrect This doesn’t describe the second stage of the preconventional level.
C. doing so helps them avoid punishment - Incorrect This is characteristic of the initial punishment and obedience stage of the preconventional level.
On the WAIS-III, a Verbal IQ that is substantially higher than the Performance IQ is most suggestive of which of the following?
A. a learning disability
B. low socioeconomic status
D. depression - (CORRECT) This is the only answer given that describes a condition that is associated with a higher Verbal IQ score. The conditions listed in answers a, b, and c are associated with a higher Performance IQ score. On the WAIS-III, a Verbal-Performance discrepancy of at least 12 points is statistically significant, but Kaufman and Lichtenberger (1999) suggest that a discrepancy be considered clinically significant only when it is at least 17 points.