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121

The primary purpose of a realistic job preview is to:
a. increase the number of applicants for a job.
b. develop an accurate job description.
c. reduce on-the-job conflicts between managers and employees.
d. reduce employee dissatisfaction and turnover.

d. reduce employee dissatisfaction and turnover. - CORRECT Two assumptions underlying the use of realistic job previews are that turnover is related to unrealistic expectations about the job and that providing applicants with accurate information about what the job entails will reduce unrealistic expectations and thereby decrease dissatisfaction and turnover. Realistic job previews may consist of job descriptions, videos, discussions with current employees, work samples, and/or other procedures or techniques.
(Industrial/Organizational Psychology)

122

The best conclusion that can be drawn about the four-day‭ (‬ compressed) ‬workweek is that it has:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. long-lasting positive effects on attitudes and productivity.
b. long-lasting negative effects on attitudes and productivity.
c. positive effects on attitudes but little or no impact on productivity.
d. positive effects on attitudes initially but, ‬over time,‭ ‬increasingly negative effects on both attitudes and productivity.

c. positive effects on attitudes but little or no impact on productivity. - CORRECT Overall, alternative work schedules have been found to have more beneficial effects on attitudes than on productivity and this seems to be particularly true for the compressed workweek. For example, a meta-analysis of the research on the compressed workweek by Baltes and his colleagues (1999) found an effect size of .59 for satisfaction and .04 for productivity. The compressed workweek requires employees to work a 4-day, 40-hourweek.
d. positive effects on attitudes initially but, ‬over time,‭ ‬increasingly negative effects on both attitudes and productivity. - Incorrect
(Industrial/Organizational Psychology)

123

A manager who adheres to the principles of "‬scientific management" ‬ would ‬most likely agree with which of the following?‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. Employees view work “‬as natural as play” ‬and actively seek autonomy and responsibility.
b. An employee's relationships with his/her coworkers are important determinants of job satisfaction.
c. Because employees value money more than other incentives,‭ ‬pay is the most effective motivator.
d. An employee's unfulfilled needs take precedence over other needs,‭ ‬and rewards should be determined accordingly.

c. Because employees value money more than other incentives,‭ ‬pay is the most effective motivator. - CORRECT Taylor believed that employees are motivated primarily by economic self-interest and, therefore, that money is the most effective motivator. Scientific management was developed by Frederick Taylor (1911) who applied the scientific method to the study of job productivity
a. Employees view work‭ “‬as natural as play‭” ‬and actively seek autonomy and responsibility. Incorrect This describes McGregor’s Theory Y managers.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
b. An employee's relationships with his/her coworkers are important determinants of job satisfaction. - Incorrect This is an assumption of the human relations movement, which was an alternative to scientific management.
d. An employee's unfulfilled needs take precedence over other needs,‭ ‬and rewards should be determined accordingly. - Incorrect This sounds like Maslow’s need hierarchy theory.‬‬‬‬‬‬
(Industrial/Organizational Psychology)

124

The “‬paired comparison” ‬technique is used to:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. evaluate an employee’s‭ ‬job performance.
b. make hiring and placement decisions.
c. identify an employee’s training needs.
d. determine‭ ‬the appropriate compensation for a job.

a. evaluate an employee’s‭ ‬job performance. - CORRECT When using the paired comparison technique, an employee is compared to every other employee on each dimension of job performance. The paired comparison technique is a method of performance appraisal.
b. make hiring and placement decisions. Incorrect
c. identify an employee’s training needs -Incorrect
d. determine‭ ‬the appropriate compensation for a job. - Incorrect
(Industrial/Organizational Psychology)

125

An organizational psychologist would most likely recommend the use of vestibule training for which of the following jobs‭?‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. airline pilot
b. word processor
c. salesperson.
d. clinical psychologist.

a. airline pilot - CORRECT Vestibule training is used when on-the-job training would be too costly or hazardous, as it would be in pilot training. Vestibule training involves the use of a simulated job environment.
b. word processor -Incorrect
c. salesperson. - Incorrect
d. clinical psychologist. - Incorrect
(Industrial/Organizational Psychology)

126

If you were hired by a large company to develop a new training program,‭ ‬your first step would probably be to conduct a:‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. needs analysis.
b. job evaluation.
c. summative evaluation.
d. formative evaluation.

a. needs analysis. - CORRECT Training program development begins with a needs analysis (also known as a needs assessment), which usually consists of three components: an organizational analysis, a job analysis, and a person analysis. For the exam, you want to be able to distinguish between needs analysis, job analysis, and job evaluation.
b. job evaluation. - Incorrect A job evaluation is conducted to determine the appropriate compensation for a job
c. summative evaluation. - Incorrect A summative evaluation is conducted to determine the effects of a training program or intervention after it has been developed.
d. formative evaluation. - Incorrect A formative evaluation is conducted while a training program or intervention is being developed to determine if modifications are required in order for the program or intervention to achieve its goals.
(Industrial/Organizational Psychology)

127

In terms of EEOC guidelines,‭ ‬a substantially different rate of selection or promotion that results in disadvantage to people of a particular gender,‭ ‬race,‭ ‬or ethnicity is evidence of:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. test bias.
b. adverse impact.
c. criterion deficiency.
d. situation specificity.

b. adverse impact. - CORRECT As defined by the EEOC, adverse impact is suggested when there is a difference between groups in terms of rates of selection, promotion, etc. The language in this question is nearly identical to that found in the EEOC’s Uniform Guidelines.
a. test bias. - Incorrect Test bias is a possible cause of adverse impact but is not the best answer to this question.
c. criterion deficiency. - Incorrect Criterion deficiency refers to the extent to which a criterion measure does not assess all of the aspects of the ultimate (accurate and complete) criterion.
d. situational specificity. - Incorrect Situational specificity is occurring when validity information is specific to a particular circumstance and does not generalize to other circumstances.
(Industrial/Organizational Psychology)

128

The rational-economic model of decision-making is based on the assumption that:
a. decision-makers place more emphasis on the costs of certain decisions than on other consequences of their decisions.
b. decision-makers have complete information about all alternatives and their consequences before making decisions.
c. individuals are better than groups at making decisions,‭ ‬especially under stressful conditions.
d. decision-makers‭’ ‬knowledge about possible alternatives is always incomplete.

b. decision-makers have complete information about all alternatives and their consequences before making decisions. -CORRECT From the perspective of the rational-economic model, "rational" means considering all alternatives and their consequences before making a decision. As its name implies, the rational-economic model assumes that decisions are based on a rational process.
a. decision-makers place more emphasis on the costs of certain decisions than on other consequences of their decisions. -Incorrect This is not an assumption of the rational-economic model.
c. individuals are better than groups at making decisions,‭ ‬especially under stressful conditions. - Incorrect This is not an assumption of this model.‬‬‬‬‬‬
d. decision-makers‭’ ‬knowledge about possible alternatives is always incomplete. - Incorrect A criticism of the rational-economic model is that it does not take into account that a decision-maker's knowledge about alternatives is often incomplete.‬‬‬‬‬‬
(Industrial/Organizational Psychology)

129

A group's performance on a(n‭) __________ ‬task is limited by the performance of the least skilled or knowledgeable member of the group.‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. additive
b. compensatory
c. disjunctive
d. conjunctive

d. conjunctive - CORRECT On a conjunctive task, the performance of the least competent member places a limit on the group's product or performance. Mountain climbing is an example of a conjunctive task. Group tasks may be categorized as additive, compensatory, disjunctive, or conjunctive.
a. additive - Incorrect On additive tasks, the coordinated efforts of several people add together to form the group product.
b. compensatory - Incorrect When performing a compensatory task, the average of the contributions of all members of the group represents the group product.
c. disjunctive - Incorrect On a disjunctive task, the solution of one member of the group is chosen by the group to be the group’s solution.
(Industrial/Organizational Psychology)

130

Donald Super’s‭ _____________ ‬graphically depicts the correspondence between an individual’s life roles and life stages.‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. life career rainbow
b. life staircase
c. mandala
d. octagon

a. life career rainbow - CORRECT The life career rainbow relates the individual’s nine life roles (e.g., child, student, citizen) to five life stages (growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance, and disengagement). Super uses several pictures to illustrate elements of his life-space, life-span theory of career development.
b. life staircase - Incorrect Super does not use a life staircase to depict components of his theory.
c. mandala - Incorrect Super does not use a mandala to depict his theory.
d. octagon - Incorrect Super does not use an octagon to illustrate elements of his theory.
(Industrial/Organizational Psychology)

131

According to Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership model,‭ "‬employee maturity‭" ‬is a function of the employee’s:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. stage of career development.
b. personality.
c. skills and willingness to assume responsibility.
d. beliefs about the meaning and value of work.

c. skills and willingness to assume responsibility.- CORRECT Hersey and Blanchard distinguish between two aspects of employee maturity: Job maturity refers to the employee's knowledge and skills, while psychological maturity refers to the employee's self-confidence and willingness to assume responsibility. Hersey and Blanchard propose that a leader is most effective when his/her behavior matches the employee's level of maturity.
(Industrial/Organizational Psychology)

132

The primary function of the psychology licensing board is ‬best described as:‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. developing laws that govern the practice of psychology.
b. providing sanctions for unethical and illegal behavior on the part of ‬ psychologists. ‬‬‬‬‬‬
c. protecting the public welfare.
d. accrediting graduate programs in psychology.

c. protecting the public welfare. - CORRECT Psychology licensing boards protect the public by creating and enforcing regulations designed to ensure that psychologists meet minimal levels of competence. While the boards sanction psychologists for illegal and unethical behavior (answer b), this is only one of a number of functions that serve the overall goal of protecting public welfare. The primary goal of the psychology licensing board is the protection of the public.
(Ethics & Professional Issues)

133

Which of the following statements best describes a researcher’s obligations regarding the use of animals in psychological research?‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. Animals should never be used in research when alternative procedures are available.
b. Animals should never be used in research if a research procedure will cause them pain or stress.
c. Inflicting pain or stress on animals is acceptable in research only when an alternative‭ (‬nonpainful‭) ‬procedure is unavailable and the use of the procedure is justified by the potential value of the study.
d. Inflicting pain or stress on animals is acceptable in research as long as it is minimized and the animal’s life is terminated as soon as is feasible.

c. Inflicting pain or stress on animals is acceptable in research only when an alternative‭ (‬nonpainful‭) ‬procedure is unavailable and the use of the procedure is justified by the potential value of the study. -‬‬‬ CORRECT Standard 8.09(e) of the Ethics Code states that “psychologists use a procedure subjecting animals to pain, stress, or privation only when an alternative procedure is unavailable and the goal is justified by its prospective scientific, educational, or applied value.” Principle II.46 of the Canadian Code of Ethics provides a nearly identical guideline. Standard 8.09 of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principle II.46 of the Canadian Code of Ethics address the use of animals in research.
(Ethics & Professional Issues Q - 5140)

134

A former client owes you over ‬$600.00‭ ‬in therapy fees and you are considering using a collection agency to collect the money she owes you.‭ ‬As an ethical psychologist,‭ ‬you should:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. decide not to do so because using a collection agency is prohibited by the ethical guidelines.
b. do so only if you had informed the client at the beginning of therapy that you would do so if she did not pay her fees in a timely manner.
c. contact the client first to inform her of your intent to use a collection agency if she does not pay her outstanding fees by a specific date.
d. use a collection agency only as a‭ “‬last resort.‭”

c. contact the client first to inform her of your intent to use a collection agency if she does not pay her outstanding fees by a specific date. - CORRECT The use of a collection agency is explicitly addressed by Standard 6.04 of the APA’s Ethics Code and indirectly addressed by Principles I.12 and III.14 of the Canadian Code of Ethics. Psychologists always want to treat clients fairly, and the best policy would be to send a letter to the client informing her of your intent to use a collection agency prior to actually doing so. Informing the client is consistent with the provisions of Standard 6.04(e) of the Ethics Code, which states that if psychologists plan to use a collection agency or other legal means to collect unpaid fees, they “first inform the person that such measures will be taken and provide that person an opportunity to make prompt payment.”
a. decide not to do so because using a collection agency is prohibited by the ethical guidelines. - Incorrect Use of a collection agency is not prohibited by ethical guidelines.
b. do so only if you had informed the client at the beginning of therapy that you would do so if she did not pay her fees in a timely manner. - Incorrect Informing the client of your policy at the beginning of therapy is a good idea but is not sufficient.
d. use a collection agency only as a‭ “‬last resort.‭” - Incorrect This answer does not address your ethical obligation in this situation.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
(Ethics & Professional Issues)

135

Dr.‭ ‬Isaac Ibraham,‭ ‬a licensed psychologist,‭ ‬wants to expand his private practice. ‭ ‬When doing so,‭ ‬he should keep in mind that uninvited in-person solicitations for therapy clients are:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. always ethical.
b. always unethical.
c. unethical only when they provide potential clients with misleading or inaccurate information.
d. unethical when the solicited individuals are susceptible to exploitation or undue influence.

d. unethical when the solicited individuals are susceptible to exploitation or undue influence. - CORRECT This issue is addressed by Standard 5.06 of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principle III.31 of the Canadian Code of Ethics. Although uninvited in-person solicitation of therapy clients is not entirely prohibited by ethical guidelines, the guidelines limit the types of in-person solicitation that are acceptable. Standard 5.06 states that “psychologists do not engage … in uninvited in-person solicitation of business [from persons who] … are vulnerable to undue influence”; and Principle III.31 states that psychologists do not exploit others by, for example, “taking advantage of trust or dependency to frighten clients into receiving services,” which might occur when in-person solicitations are uninvited.
c. unethical only when they provide potential clients with misleading or inaccurate information. - Incorrect Providing individuals with inaccurate or misleading information would be unethical, but this answer states that solicitation is unethical only in this circumstance, which is not the case.
(Ethics & Professional Issues)

136

You have been seeing Leticia Lopez in therapy for several months.‭ ‬Leticia is‭ ‬24‭ ‬years old and lives with her widowed mother,‭ ‬who is paying for Leticia’s therapy. ‭ ‬One day,‭ ‬Leticia's mother calls and says she is very concerned about Leticia and wants to know what she can do to help Leticia feel better about herself. ‭ ‬Mrs.‭ ‬Lopez asks that you not tell Leticia that she has called.‭ ‬Your best course of action in this situation would be to:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. give Mrs.‭ ‬Lopez the specific advice she has requested.
b. tell Mrs.‭ ‬Lopez to ask Leticia what she‭ (‬Mrs.‭ ‬Lopez‭) ‬can do to help her. ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
c. tell Mrs.‭ ‬Lopez that it would be best if you discussed this matter with Leticia.
d. suggest that Mrs.‭ ‬Lopez accompany Leticia to her next therapy session.

c. tell Mrs.‭ ‬Lopez that it would be best if you discussed this matter with Leticia. - ‬‬‬‬‬
CORRECT This course of action is most consistent with the ethical guidelines and is also likely to be in the best interests of Leticia from a clinical perspective. Leticia is an adult and, even though her mother is paying for her therapy, this does not limit Leticia’s confidentiality.
a. give Mrs.‭ ‬Lopez the specific advice she has requested. - Incorrect Discussing Leticia’s status with her mother without Leticia’s consent would represent a breach of confidentiality.‬‬‬‬‬‬
b. tell Mrs.‭ ‬Lopez to ask Leticia what she‭ (‬Mrs.‭ ‬Lopez‭) ‬can do to help her. - Incorrect This alternative does not explicitly violate ethical guidelines, but response c is a better answer. ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
d. suggest that Mrs.‭ ‬Lopez accompany Leticia to her next therapy session. - Incorrect This would not be the most appropriate course of action from either an ethical or clinical perspective.‬‬‬‬‬‬
(Ethics & Professional Issues)

137

Vicarious liability is most likely to be an issue when a psychologist is acting in which of the following capacities?‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. faculty member
b. supervisor
c. mentor
d. therapist

b. supervisor - CORRECT A psychologist may have vicarious liability when his/her employee or supervisee engages in illegal behavior. Vicarious liability (also known as derivative and secondary liability) is a legal term that refers to a person’s responsibility for the actions of another person.
(Ethics & Professional Issues)

138

A student participant in a research study involving matched pairs decides to withdraw from the study.‭ ‬The chief investigator (‬who is a licensed psychologist) ‬stresses to the student the importance of the student’s data to the study,‭ ‬but he insists that his data be withdrawn.‭ ‬The investigator should:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. warn the student that withdrawal from the study will affect his course grade.
b. remind the student that he signed an informed consent and cannot now request that his data be withdrawn.
c. tell the student that his name will be removed from all data and include his data in the study.
d. allow the student to withdraw from the study.

d. allow the student to withdraw from the study. - CORRECT This answer is most consistent with ethical guidelines. Standard 8.02(a) states that research participants must be free to “decline to participate and to withdraw from the research once participation has begun”; and Principle I.24 similarly states that research participants must have “the option to refuse or withdraw at any time, without prejudice.” This issue is addressed by Standard 8.02 of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principle I.24 of the Canadian Code of Ethics.
a. warn the student that withdrawal from the study will affect his course grade. - Incorrect Simply warning the student of the negative consequences of withdrawing from the study would be coercive and, therefore, a violation of the ethical guidelines.
b. remind the student that he signed an informed consent and cannot now request that his data be withdrawn. - Incorrect
c. tell the student that his name will be removed from all data and include his data in the study. - Incorrect
(Ethics & Professional Issues)

139

When consulting with a colleague about a‭ “‬therapeutic impasse‭” ‬you are having with a therapy client:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. it is always necessary to advise the client about the consultation.
b. it is necessary to get a signed waiver of confidentiality from the client before discussing confidential information with the consultant.
c. it is unnecessary to advise the client of the consultation as long as only information that is relevant to the impasse is discussed.
d. it is unnecessary to advise the client of the consultation as long as the client's identity is not revealed.

d. it is unnecessary to advise the client of the consultation as long as the client's identity is not revealed. - CORRECT Consultation is addressed in Standard 4.06 of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principles I.38 and 45 of the Canadian Code of Ethics. This answer most accurately describes a psychologist’s ethical obligation when consulting with a colleague about a therapy client.
a. it is always necessary to advise the client about the consultation. - Incorrect This answer does not accurately describe ethical requirements related to consultation.
b. it is necessary to get a signed waiver of confidentiality from the client before discussing confidential information with the consultant. - Incorrect Obtaining a waiver of confidentiality is not necessary as long as the client's identity is not revealed.
c. it is unnecessary to advise the client of the consultation as long as only information that is relevant to the impasse is discussed. -Incorrect This answer does not accurately describe ethical requirements related to consultation.
(Ethics & Professional Issues)

140

Pro bono services are:
a. legal and ethical.
b. legal but unethical.
c. illegal but ethical.
d. illegal and unethical.

a. legal and ethical. - CORRECT Pro bono services are not directly addressed by the APA’s Ethics Code or the Canadian Code of Ethics. However, providing services for no compensation to serve the public good is certainly legal and ethical. In terms of ethical requirements, for example, pro bono services are consistent with General Principle A of the Ethics Code which states that psychologists “strive to contribute a portion of their professional time for little or no compensation or personal advantage.” Pro bono services are professional services that are provided for no compensation for the public good.
b. legal but unethical. - Incorrect
c. illegal but ethical. - Incorrect
d. illegal and unethical. - Incorrect
(Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz - 5159)

141

Dr.‭ ‬Harold Hanson,‭ ‬a psychologist who heads the personnel committee at a mental health facility,‭ ‬recommends that a psychologist who has an unresolved charge of sexual harassment against him not be considered for a promotion.‭ ‬In terms of his ethical responsibilities,‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Hanson:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. has acted ethically since sexual harassment is explicitly prohibited by the ethical guidelines.
b. has acted ethically as long as he is willing to consider the psychologist for promotion if he is acquitted of the harassment charge.
c. has acted ethically as long as his decision is consistent with the stated promotion policy of the mental health facility.
d. has acted unethically by violating the requirements of the ethical guidelines regarding employment procedures.

d. has acted unethically by violating the requirements of the ethical guidelines regarding employment procedures. - CORRECT Standard 1.08 of the APA’s Ethic Code prohibits denying a person a promotion “based solely upon their having made or their being the subject of an ethics complaint.” Note that this prohibition does not necessarily preclude doing so when a charge against a person has been proven (in the situation described in this question, the charge is unresolved). Although the Canadian Code of Ethics does not explicitly address this situation, Principle I.13 states that psychologists “abide by due process or other natural justice procedures for employment.” This situation is explicitly addressed by Standard 1.08 of the APA’s Ethics Code and indirectly addressed by Principle I.13 of the Canadian Code of Ethics.
a. has acted ethically since sexual harassment is explicitly prohibited by the ethical guidelines. - Incorrect
b. has acted ethically as long as he is willing to consider the psychologist for promotion if he is acquitted of the harassment charge.- Incorrect See explanation for response d.
c. has acted ethically as long as his decision is consistent with the stated promotion policy of the mental health facility. - Incorrect
(Ethics & Professional Issues)

142

When there is a conflict between ethical obligations and legal requirements,‭ ‬a psychologist should ordinarily:‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. choose the course of action that adheres to ethical obligations.
b. choose the course of action that adheres to legal requirements.
c. attempt to resolve the conflict but adhere to legal requirements when this is not possible.
d. attempt to resolve the conflict but adhere to ethical obligations when this is not possible.

c. attempt to resolve the conflict but adhere to legal requirements when this is not possible. -
CORRECT Standard 1.02 of the APA’s Ethics Code states that “if psychologists’ ethical responsibilities conflict with law, regulations, or other governing legal authority, psychologists make known their commitment to the Ethics Code and take steps to resolve the conflict. If the conflict is unresolvable via such means, psychologists may adhere to the requirements of the law, regulations, or other governing legal authority.” In other words, psychologists are not required to violate the law in order to fulfill their ethical obligations. This issue is addressed by Standard 1.02 of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principle IV.17 of the Canadian Code of Ethics.
(Ethics & Professional Issues)

143

The‭ ‬1976‭ ‬Tarasoff decision established:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. the right of a parent to inspect and request modifications to his/her child’s school records.
b. a psychologist’s‭ “‬duty to protect‭” ‬the intended victim of a therapy client.
c. the‭ “‬80%‭ ‬rule‭” ‬as a standard for determining the fairness of a selection test or other employment procedure.
d. a psychologist’s duty to report suspected or known cases of child abuse.

b. a psychologist’s‭ “‬duty to protect‭” ‬the intended victim of a therapy client. - CORRECT Although the original 1974 Tarasoff decision established a “duty to warn” the intended victim of a therapy client, that decision was superceded by the 1976 rehearing of the case which established a “duty to protect” the intended victim. Specifically, the 1976 ruling states that a psychotherapist has a duty to protect an intended victim of a therapy client by warning “the intended victim or others likely to apprise the victim of the danger, [notifying] the police, or … [taking] whatever other steps are reasonably necessary under the circumstances.” The Tarasoff ruling established that client-therapist confidentiality must be breached when a client is a danger to others.
(Ethics & Professional Issues)

144

Dr.‭ ‬Marcos Manzetti uses a‭ “‬sliding scale‭” ‬that is based on a client’s current income to set his fees for therapy.‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Manzetti’s practice is:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. ethically acceptable since it serves the best interests of his clients.
b. explicitly recommended in the ethical guidelines.
c. ethically unacceptable since it treats clients inequitably.
d. explicitly prohibited in the ethical guidelines.

a. ethically acceptable since it serves the best interests of his clients. - CORRECT Sliding scale fees for psychological services are consistent with the “spirit” of ethical guidelines as long as they are fair and serve the best interests of the client. Sliding scale fees are not explicitly addressed in the APA’s Ethics Code or the Canadian Code of Ethics
b. explicitly recommended in the ethical guidelines. - Incorrect
c. ethically unacceptable since it treats clients inequitably. - Incorrect
d. explicitly prohibited in the ethical guidelines. Incorrect
(Ethics & Professional Issues)

145

When serving as an expert witness in a child custody case,‭ ‬a psychologist's primary concern should be:‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. what the child desires.
b. maintaining a position of neutrality.
c. the best interests of the child.
d. the best interests of the person who hired the psychologist.

c. the best interests of the child. - CORRECT Regardless of who employed the psychologist, the child's best interests (which may or may not be consistent with the child’s desires) are a priority, and a psychologist should make this clear to all parties at the outset. In child custody cases, the child’s best interests are always the primary concern for the psychologist and the court.
(Ethics & Professional Issues)

146

A couple brings their ten-year-old son to therapy at the suggestion of his school counselor who is concerned because the boy has started arguing with his teacher and getting into physical fights with his classmates.‭ ‬After several sessions with the boy and his family,‭ ‬you receive a letter from the school principal requesting information about the boy's condition,‭ ‬and a signed release from the boy's parents is included with the letter.‭ ‬As an ethical psychologist,‭ ‬you should:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. refuse to release the records to anyone but a licensed psychologist.
b. refuse to release the records to anyone but the boy's parents.
c. release only that information you believe to be relevant to the school's concerns.
d. release photocopies of your complete file on the boy and his family.

c. release only that information you believe to be relevant to the school's concerns. - CORRECT The most ethical course of action in this situation would be to release only information that is relevant to the school's role in the boy's treatment. Doing so would be consistent with the provisions of Standard 4.04(a) of the APA’s Ethics Code, which states that written and oral reports include “only information germane to the purpose for which the communication is made.” It is also consistent with the provisions of Principles I.37 and 39 of the Canadian Code of Ethics. Since the boy’s parents have signed a release, you would ordinarily provide information to the school principal – but not necessarily all of the information that has been requested.
(Ethics & Professional Issues)

147

Which of the following best describes ethical guidelines for the use of deception in research?‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. Deception is prohibited in all circumstances.
b. Deception is prohibited except when the purpose and design of the study require the use of unobtrusive measures.
c. Deception is prohibited whenever it involves deceiving potential participants about aspects of the study that would affect their willingness to participate.
d. Deception is acceptable only when participants have given “‬limited consent” ‬after being told about the general nature of the study.

c. Deception is prohibited whenever it involves deceiving potential participants about aspects of the study that would affect their willingness to participate. - CORRECT The use of deception in research is addressed in Standard 8.07 of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principles III.23, 24, and 27 of the Canadian Code of Ethics. According to ethical guidelines, deception can be used in research only when it is justified by the study's potential value, when it has been determined that alternative procedures are not available, and when participants are not deceived about aspects of a study that would otherwise influence their willingness to participate in the study.
(Ethics & Professional Issues)

148

Dr.‭ ‬Sam Solo is the only psychologist in a small town,‭ ‬and his son is enrolled in the town's only elementary school.‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Solo receives a call from his son's teacher who says she would like to begin therapy with him.‭ ‬As an ethical psychologist,‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Solo should:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. tell the teacher that he is ethically prohibited from seeing her because to do so would constitute a multiple‭ (‬dual‭) ‬relationship.
b. begin therapy with her and discuss the potential for conflicts during the initial session and,‭ ‬if necessary,‭ ‬in subsequent sessions.
c. begin therapy with her but seek consultation if any problems arise.
d. begin therapy with her but take special precautions to ensure that client confidentiality is maintained.

b. begin therapy with her and discuss the potential for conflicts during the initial session and,‭ ‬if necessary,‭ ‬in subsequent sessions. - CORRECT The ethical guidelines discourage multiple relationships whenever there is a potential for exploitation or loss of objectivity. The prohibition against multiple relationships is not absolute, however, so if Dr. Solo is the only psychologist in town, seeing the teacher and discussing the potential for conflict is the best choice. A better course of action might be to see if the teacher can be treated by a therapist in a neighboring town, but this option is not provided by any of the answers. Keep in mind for the licensing exam that the prohibition against multiple relationships is not absolute.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
d. begin therapy with her but take special precautions to ensure that client confidentiality is maintained. - Incorrect Confidentiality is not the only issue of concern in multiple relationship situations, so this is not the best answer of those given.
(Ethics & Professional Issues)

149

Which of the following best describes ethical guidelines regarding sexual intimacies with ‬former therapy clients?‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. Psychologists are prohibited from having sexual intimacies with former therapy clients under any circumstances.
b. Psychologists are prohibited from having sexual intimacies with former therapy clients for at least one year following the termination of therapy.
c. Psychologists are prohibited from having sexual intimacies with former therapy clients in certain circumstances (‬e.g.,‭ ‬when there is a risk of exploitation)‬. ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
d. Psychologists are‭ ‬not prohibited from having sexual intimacies with former therapy clients.

c. Psychologists are prohibited from having sexual intimacies with former therapy clients in certain circumstances‭ (‬e.g.,‭ ‬when there is a risk of exploitation‭)‬. - CORRECT Standard 10.08 of the APA’s Ethics Code states that sexual intimacies with former therapy clients may be acceptable two years after termination of therapy when certain conditions are met (e.g., when there is no exploitation of the client), while Principle II.27 of the Canadian Code of Ethics states that sexual intimacies with former therapy clients must be avoided when “the power relationship reasonably could be expected to influence the client’s decision making.” The APA’s Ethics Code and the Canadian Code of Ethics both discourage psychologists from becoming sexually involved with former therapy clients. ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. Psychologists are prohibited from having sexual intimacies with former therapy clients under any circumstances. - Incorrect
b. Psychologists are prohibited from having sexual intimacies with former therapy clients for at least one year following the termination of therapy. - Incorrect
d. Psychologists are‭ ‬not prohibited from having sexual intimacies with former therapy clients. - Incorrect
(Ethics & Professional Issues)

150

Dr.‭ ‬Jones, ‭ ‬a clinical psychologist,‭ ‬has been seeing Lisa L.‭ ‬in therapy for one month. ‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Jones considers Lisa to be a very attractive woman and finds himself having sexual fantasies about her.‭ ‬As an ethical psychologist,‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Jones should:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. recognize that such attraction is normal but proceed with caution.
b. confess his attraction to Lisa and make it a topic for mutual examination in therapy.
c. recognize that such attraction is inappropriate and refer Lisa to another therapist without explaining the reason to her.
d. continue working with Lisa but consult with a colleague if he believes his attraction might be interfering with his objectivity.

d. continue working with Lisa but consult with a colleague if he believes his attraction might be interfering with his objectivity.- CORRECT The most professional and ethical behavior in this situation would be for Dr. Jones to recognize his feelings while realizing that, as a professional, he cannot act on those feelings. It would be acceptable, under these conditions, for Dr. Jones to continue working with Lisa unless his feelings begin to interfere with his ability to provide treatment to her. If this occurs, Dr. Jones should seek professional consultation to determine the best course of action. As with many exam questions that pose an ethical dilemma, the best answer to this one is the answer that describes the most conservative (cautious) action.
a. recognize that such attraction is normal but proceed with caution. - Incorrect Attraction to a client is not necessarily "normal" and "proceeding with caution" may not be adequate. Therefore, response d is a better answer.
b. confess his attraction to Lisa and make it a topic for mutual examination in therapy. - Incorrect Whether an attraction toward a client should ever be discussed with the client is a controversial issue among therapists. In most cases, however, it is not advisable.
c. recognize that such attraction is inappropriate and refer Lisa to another therapist without explaining the reason to her. - Incorrect Referring Lisa to another therapist might be the appropriate action if Dr. Jones feels that his attraction to Lisa is interfering with his ability to treat her. The information given in the question, however, does not suggest that this is the case, and response d is a better answer.
(Ethics & Professional Issues)