EPPP Test Questions Flashcards Preview

EPPP shorter > EPPP Test Questions > Flashcards

Flashcards in EPPP Test Questions Deck (310)
Loading flashcards...
31

You receive a call from Mrs.‭ ‬Wang who is very upset because her‭ ‬14-year-old daughter witnessed the assault of her best friend three days ago and is very distraught. ‭ ‬The girl hasn’t slept,‭ ‬won’t eat,‭ ‬and can’t stop crying.‭ ‬You have limited experience working with adolescents and in providing crisis intervention services.‭ ‬However,‭ ‬there is no one else in the community who is more experienced than you are.‭ ‬As an ethical psychologist,‭ ‬you will:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. agree to see Mrs.‭ ‬Wang’s daughter in therapy since you’ve had some experience providing crisis intervention experiences.
‬‬‬b. inform Mrs.‭ ‬Wang about your lack of experience and let her decide if she wants you to provide therapy to her daughter. ‬‬‬
c. inform Mrs.‭ ‬Wang that you cannot see her daughter because of your lack of experience. ‬‬‬
d. see Mrs.‭ ‬Wang’s daughter in therapy only until the crisis has ended or until you locate alternative services.‬‬‬

d. see Mrs.‭ ‬Wang’s daughter in therapy only until the crisis has ended or until you locate alternative services. CORRECT This answer is most consistent with ethical requirements. Standard 2.02 of the Ethics Code, for example, states that “in emergencies, when psychologists provide services to individuals for whom other mental health services are not available and for which psychologists have not obtained the necessary training, psychologists may provide such services in order to ensure that services are not denied. The services are discontinued as soon as the emergency has ended or appropriate services are available.” Standard 2.02 of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principle II.8 of the Canadian Code of Ethics apply to this situation.
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz

32

A psychologist in private practice is going through a difficult divorce and,‭ ‬as a result,‭ ‬has started drinking and is often depressed. He should:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. plunge deeper into his work to take his mind off his own problems.
b. seek professional consultation and consider temporarily suspending his practice.
c. explain the situation to his clients and offer to refer them to other therapists.
d. immediately refer his clients to other therapists.

b. seek professional consultation and consider temporarily suspending his practice.
CORRECT Psychologists do not necessarily have to abandon their professional practice when experiencing a period of personal distress. However, when personal problems may be adversely affecting the welfare of their clients, psychologists must take appropriate action. This often includes “obtaining professional consultation or assistance ... to determine whether they should limit, suspend, or terminate their work-related duties” [Ethics Code, Standard 2.06(b)]. This issue is addressed by Standard 2.06(b) of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principle II.11 of the Canadian Code of Ethics.
d. immediately refer his clients to other therapists. - Incorrect This may be necessary, but the best initial step would be to seek consultation to determine the most appropriate course of action.
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz

33

Which of the following is most likely a violation of ethical guidelines?‬‬‬
a. a brochure containing client testimonials mailed to potential attendees at a conference for adult children of alcoholics
b. an advertisement offering a free initial therapy session that is published in the campus newspaper just prior to final exams
c. uninvited in-person solicitations for therapy of hurricane victims that destroyed their homes
d. a display ad for psychotherapy services in the yellow pages of the local telephone directory

c. uninvited in-person solicitations for therapy of hurricane victims that destroyed their homes (CORRECT) In-person solicitation of individuals who are vulnerable to undue influence is explicitly prohibited by Standard 5.06 of the APA’s Ethics Code and is inconsistent with the “spirit” of the Canadian Code of Ethics (see, e.g., Principles I.27 and III.31). Of the advertisements/solicitations described in the responses, only one is clearly prohibited by ethical guidelines.
a. a brochure containing client testimonials mailed to potential attendees at a conference for adult children of alcoholics - Incorrect Testimonials are acceptable as long as they are not solicited from clients who are susceptible to undue influence (see Standard 5.05 of the APA’s Ethics Code).
b. an advertisement offering a free initial therapy session that is published in the campus newspaper just prior to final exams - Incorrect Free initial sessions are not prohibited by ethical guidelines.
d. a display ad for psychotherapy services in the yellow pages of the local telephone directory - Incorrect Ads in the yellow pages of the phone directory are not prohibited by ethical guidelines.
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz

34

You receive a phone call from Hermann H.,‭ ‬age‭ ‬28,‭ ‬who says he is‭ “‬totally miserable‭” ‬because of the recent breakup with his girlfriend and that he would like to begin therapy with you.‭ ‬During the first session with Hermann,‭ ‬you find out that his political views are completely repugnant to you,‭ ‬and you feel that you would not enjoy working with him. ‭ ‬As an ethical psychologist,‭ ‬you should:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. consult with another psychologist during the course of treatment to make sure your feelings don’t interfere with your objectivity.
b. discuss the difference in political views with Hermann only if they become relevant to the psychotherapy process.
c. see Hermann in therapy until his current crisis is over and then make a referral if necessary.
d. provide Hermann with appropriate referrals.

d. provide Hermann with appropriate referrals. (CORRECT) Of the responses given, this one describes the action that is in the best interests of both the client and you (the therapist). Psychologists are not required to see every client who seeks their services – and, to do so, would be unethical if the client's characteristics interfere with the provision of adequate services.
c. see Hermann in therapy until his current crisis is over and then make a referral if necessary. - Incorrect. The information presented in the question does not suggest that the client is experiencing a crisis.
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz

35

As defined in the APA's‭ ‬General Guidelines for Providers of Psychological Services and the CPA’s‭ ‬Practice Guidelines for Providers of Psychological Services,‭ “‬psychological services‭” ‬include all of the following‭ ‬except‭?‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. the conduct of scientific research
b. program development
c. consultation related to assessment and intervention
d. supervision of psychological services

a. the conduct of scientific research (Correct Answer) The conduct of scientific research is not included in the definition of psychological services. The APA and CPA guidelines are both very specific about the activities that constitute “psychological services.”
b. program development (Incorrect) Incorrect Program development is included.
c. consultation related to assessment and intervention - Incorrect Consultation is included.
d. supervision of psychological services - Incorrect Supervision is included.
(Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz - 5208)

36

__________ ‬is the most frequent cause of many of the ethical complaints brought against psychotherapy supervisors.
a. Sexual harassment
b. Breach of confidentiality
c. Lack of timely feedback
d. Incompetence

c. Lack of timely feedback (CORRECT) Since the primary purpose of supervision is to provide supervisees with feedback about their performance, it makes sense that this would be the most frequently cited problem. See, e.g., N. Ladany, D. Lehrman-Waterman, M. Molinaro, & B. Wolgast, Psychotherapy supervisor ethical practices: Adherence to guidelines, the supervisory working alliance, and supervisee satisfaction, The Counseling Psychologist, 27(3), 443-475, 1999. There is very little empirical research on supervision, and many of the conclusions drawn in the literature seem to be based on anecdotal evidence.
(Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz - 5221)

37

Which of the following is true about the use of deception in a research study that may cause participants pain‭?‬‬‬
a. Deception is acceptable in studies that may cause pain only when the use of pain is justified by the study’s potential value.
b. Deception is acceptable in studies that may cause pain only when there are no alternative methods for conducting the study.
c. Deception is prohibited when the pain is physical but not when it is psychological in nature.
d. Deception is prohibited whether the pain is physical or psychological in nature.

d. Deception is prohibited whether the pain is physical or psychological in nature. (CORRECT) This answer is most consistent with Standard 8.07(b) of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principle III.24 of the Canadian Code of Ethics. Standard 8.07(b), for example, states that “psychologists do not deceive prospective participants about research that is reasonably expected to cause physical pain or severe emotional distress.” Deception in research is acceptable only when certain conditions are met.
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz

38

The primary goal of quality assurance is best described as:
a. reducing program costs and beneficiary expenditures.
b. improving the health status and satisfaction of patients.
c. policing the profession by detecting and dealing appropriately with incompetent psychologists.
d. guaranteeing that the needs of patients belonging to a particular group or population are being met.

b. improving the health status and satisfaction of patients. (Correct Answer) Quality assurance is directed toward ensuring that programs and services are effective, efficient, and available. This goal is achieved by comparing services to predefined standards. As its name implies, the focus of quality assurance is on the quality of the services provided.
a. reducing program costs and beneficiary expenditures. - Incorrect This better describes the goal of “utilization review.”
c. policing the profession by detecting and dealing appropriately with incompetent psychologists. - Incorrect This could be one of the outcomes of quality assurance, but it is certainly not its primary goal.
d. guaranteeing that the needs of patients belonging to a particular group or population are being met. - Incorrect This answer isn't as good as response b because quality assurance can't guarantee that the needs of patients are being met.
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz

39

Dr.‭ ‬Melba Morrison,‭ ‬a licensed psychologist,‭ ‬conducts research and teaches several classes at a large university.‭ ‬In her social psychology classes,‭ ‬she usually covers only material that is consistent with the results of her own research.‭ ‬In terms of the ethical guidelines,‭ ‬this practice is:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. ethical since it is up to Dr.‭ ‬Morrison to decide what to cover in her classes. ‬‬‬
b. ethical as long as Dr.‭ ‬Morrison provides information about her policy in the class syllabus. ‬‬‬c. ethically questionable but not addressed by ethical guidelines.
d. clearly unethical.

d. clearly unethical. (Correct Answer)
To be consistent with ethical requirements when acting as an instructor or trainer, psychologists must present information accurately and in an unbiased way. Therefore, Dr. Morrison is acting unethically by presenting only information that is consistent with the results of her own research. This issue is addressed by Standard 7.03 of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principle III.12 of the Canadian Code of Ethics.
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz

40

A client whom Dr.‭ ‬Oliver Olivetti has been seeing for several months has recently changed jobs,‭ ‬and the client has learned that her new insurance plan does not begin covering pre-existing conditions for‭ ‬12‭ ‬months.‭ ‬The client asks Dr.‭ ‬Olivetti if he could write his bills so that it appears that she has just started therapy. ‭ ‬If Dr.‭ ‬Olivetti complies with the client's request,‭ ‬he is acting:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. ethically since he is taking the client’s welfare into consideration.
b. ethically only if not to do so would require the client to quit therapy.
c. ethically only if the insurance forms do not require him to sign a statement saying that treatment began after the effective date of the insurance.
d. unethically.

d. unethically. (CORRECT) As noted above, complying with the client’s request would represent insurance fraud. The client in this situation is asking Dr. Olivetti to commit insurance fraud and, if Dr. Olivetti does so, he will be acting both unethically and illegally.a. ethically since he is taking the client’s welfare into consideration.
Incorrect Although Dr. Olivetti should consider his client's welfare (by, for example, offering a reduced fee so that the client doesn't have to terminate therapy), he would be acting unethically and illegally if he agrees to the arrangement requested by the client.
b.. ethically only if not to do so would require the client to quit therapy. - Incorrect This arrangement would be illegal and unethical regardless of the ramifications for the client.
c. ethically only if the insurance forms do not require him to sign a statement saying that treatment began after the effective date of the insurance. - Incorrect This would still represent insurance fraud since the client and therapist are well aware of the insurance provisions.
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz

41

Dr.‭ ‬Sam Stone has been hired by a consulting firm to assist with an ongoing research project being conducted at a large company.‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Stone is to work directly under the project director,‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Thompson,‭ ‬a licensed organizational psychologist.‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Thompson asks Dr.‭ ‬Stone to review the preliminary report she has prepared for the project‭; ‬and,‭ ‬in doing so,‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Stone discovers that some of the reported data is misleading and may be inaccurate. ‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Stone expresses his concerns to Dr.‭ ‬Thompson and is told that‭ “‬it will be taken care of.‭” ‬Subsequently,‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Stone learns that the report was submitted to the company without any changes.‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Stone reviews the ethical guidelines and decides that pursuing the matter further isn't necessary. ‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Stone's conclusion:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. is correct since this situation is not covered by ethical guidelines.
b. is correct since he has already attempted to resolve the matter in an informal manner as proscribed by ethical guidelines.
c. is correct since it is the project director’s responsibility to provide the company with complete and accurate data.
d. is incorrect because he has a responsibility to ensure that the company is provided with complete and accurate data.

d. is incorrect because he has a responsibility to ensure that the company is provided with complete and accurate data. (CORRECT) This answer is most consistent with the “spirit” of ethical guidelines and, more specifically with Standard 1.01 of the Ethics Code, which states that “if psychologists learn of misuse or misinterpretation of their work, they take reasonable steps to correct or minimize the misuse or misrepresentation”; and with Principle II.5 of the Canadian Code of Ethics, which states that psychologists “make every reasonable effort to ensure that psychological knowledge is not misused, intentionally or unintentionally, to harm others.” (Also see Standard 5.01 of the Ethics Code and Principle III.1 of the Canadian Code of Ethics.) This issue is addressed by Standard 1.01 of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principle II.5 of the Canadian Code of Ethics.
(Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz - 5184)

42

A colleague,‭ ‬a licensed psychologist,‭ ‬confides in you that he has just ended a sexual relationship with one of his clients.‭ ‬As he describes the client,‭ ‬you realize that she is someone you referred to him about‭ ‬18‭ ‬months ago.‭ ‬As an ethical psychologist,‭ ‬you should:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. file a complaint against the colleague immediately with the Ethics Committee.
b. file a complaint against the colleague with the Ethics Committee after informing him that you intend to do so.
c. discuss the matter further with the colleague to see what course of action he plans to take.
d. contact the client and discuss the matter with her.

c. discuss the matter further with the colleague to see what course of action he plans to take. (CORRECT) Ethical guidelines require psychologists to address ethical violations by other psychologists but to do so in a way that does not violate the confidentiality of the involved client. Therefore, this is the best course of action of those presented in the answers to this question. Ethical violations by colleagues are addressed by Standards 1.04 and 1.05 of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principles II.40 and 41 of the Canadian Code of Ethics.
a. file a complaint against the colleague immediately with the Ethics Committee. -
Incorrect Filing a complaint with the Ethics Committee would be unethical if it involved a breach of the client's confidentiality.
b. file a complaint against the colleague with the Ethics Committee after informing him that you intend to do so. - Incorrect See explanation for responses a and c.
d. contact the client and discuss the matter with her. - Incorrect The question does not say that you have a current professional relationship with the client and, even if you did, it probably would not be appropriate to confront her with this from both an ethical and clinical perspective.
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz

43

The mother of a‭ ‬31-year-old client that you have been seeing for six months calls to check on her son's progress.‭ ‬She says that she is very concerned about her son and wants to know if there is anything she can do to help him.‭ ‬As an ethical psychologist,‭ ‬you:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. advise her in general terms about how she can help her son.
b. suggest that she make an appointment so you can discuss the matter in person.
c. suggest that she come to therapy with her son at his next appointment.
d. tell her that you cannot discuss her son’s condition with her.

d. tell her that you cannot discuss her son’s condition with her. (CORRECT) Giving the mother any information about her adult son would represent a breach of his confidentiality. Therefore, this is the best answer of those given. This question addresses the issue of client confidentiality.
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz

44

Dr.‭ ‬Donald Dreadmire is starting a therapy group for recently divorced men.‭ ‬He tells the editor of the local newspaper‭ (‬who has just divorced his wife‭) ‬that he can attend the group for free if the editor includes an article about the program in the newspaper.‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Dreadmire has acted:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. ethically since his request does not violate ethical guidelines.
b. ethically as long as the editor accurately describes the program.
c. unethically because his request is exploitative and violates ethical guidelines.
d. unethically only if the arrangement negatively impacts his objectivity when working with the editor in therapy.

c. unethically because his request is exploitative and violates ethical guidelines. (Correct Answer) Of the answers given, this one is most consistent with ethical guidelines. Standard 5.02(b) of the Ethics Code prohibits psychologists from compensating “employees of press, radio, television, or other communication media in return for publicity in a news item”; and Principle III.31 of the Canadian Code of Ethics prohibits psychologists from exploiting “any relationship established as a psychologist to further personal, political, or business interests at the expense of the best interests of their clients.” This issue is directly addressed by Standard 5.02(b) of the APA’s Ethics Code and indirectly addressed by Principle III.31 of the Canadian Code of Ethics.
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz

45

After three sessions with a therapy client,‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Leonard Lykowski realizes that he’s feeling somewhat hostile toward the client because she reminds him of his wife who he’s currently divorcing.‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Lykowski’s best course of action would be to:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. refer the client to another therapist without telling the client the reason for the referral.
b. refer the client to another therapist after discussing the reason with her.
c. recognize that his feelings are the result of countertransference and continue to work with the client.
d. consult with another psychologist to determine whether or not to continue seeing the client in therapy.

d. consult with another psychologist to determine whether or not to continue seeing the client in therapy. (CORRECT) Consultation with another professional is ordinarily the best course of action whenever a therapist is concerned that a personal problem might interfere with his/her ability to provide a client with adequate therapy. In the situation described in this question, Dr. Lykowski’s personal problems may be affecting his objectivity.
c. recognize that his feelings are the result of countertransference and continue to work with the client. - Incorrect Although Dr. Lykowski’s feelings do represent countertransference, he would want to seek consultation to determine if those feelings are negatively impacting (or are likely to negatively impact) his ability to provide the client with appropriate services.
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz

46

Alice A.,‭ ‬who has a master's degree in clinical psychology but is not licensed,‭ ‬is hired by a community mental health clinic to,‭ ‬among other things,‭ ‬administer several standard psychological tests to adult clients.‭ ‬According to ethical guidelines,‭ ‬this is:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. acceptable as long as a professional clinical psychologist co-signs‭ ‬Alice’s evaluations. ‬‬‬
b. acceptable as long as a professional clinical psychologist supervises‭ ‬Alice’s activities.
c. unacceptable since‭ ‬Alice is not a licensed psychologist. ‬‬‬
d. unacceptable since ‬Alice does not have a doctoral degree.

b. acceptable as long as a professional clinical psychologist supervises‭ ‬Alice’s activities. (Correct Answer)‬‬‬ This answer is most consistent with ethical and legal guidelines. Alice may administer some psychological tests as long as she has been adequately trained and is supervised by a professional clinical psychologist. Ethical (and legal) guidelines do not prohibit the provision of all psychological services by individuals who are not licensed clinical psychologists. However, they do require that such persons be supervised by a professional clinical psychologist.
a. acceptable as long as a professional clinical psychologist co-signs‭ ‬Alice’s evaluations. - Incorrect This would not be considered adequate supervision.
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz

47

Following the retirement of his business partner,‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Sheldon Smythe is the only psychologist in a small town,‭ ‬and the next closest mental health professional works in a town that is over‭ ‬100‭ ‬miles away.‭ ‬Several of Dr.‭ ‬Smythe’s new clients have problems for which he has limited training and experience.‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Smythe should:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. refuse to see the clients.
b. see these clients but use only interventions that he has experience using.
c. see the clients and obtain supervision or consultation by telephone.
d. agree to see these clients only if they are experiencing a crisis.

c. see the clients and obtain supervision or consultation by telephone. (CORRECT) It is acceptable and desirable for psychologists to acquire new skills and to treat new problems – but only when appropriate supervision or consultation is obtained. The situation described in this question is a complex one, but this response is the best one given the circumstances (the next closest mental professional works in a town that is over 100 miles away) and the alternatives provided in the other answers. Although psychologists should ordinarily provide services that are within the boundaries of their training and experience, there are exceptions.
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz

48

Ethical standards for varying professions differ with regard to their emphasis and perspective.‭ ‬As a psychologist working in a multidisciplinary setting,‭ ‬you should:‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. only work with fellow psychologists when developing professional and ethical standards for psychological services.
b. cooperate with other professionals when developing professional and ethical standards for psychological services.
c. consult with your local ethics committee for permission to work with other professionals when developing professional and ethical standards for psychological services.
d. develop professional and ethical standards for mental health services that do not recognize professional differences.

b. cooperate with other professionals when developing professional and ethical standards for psychological services. (CORRECT) General Principle B of APA's Ethics Code states that “psychologists consult with, refer to, or cooperate with other professionals and institutions to the extent needed to serve the best interests of those with whom they work”; and the Values Statement of Principle IV of the Canadian Code of Ethics states that “in order to be responsible and accountable to society, and to contribute constructively to its ongoing development, psychologists need to be willing to work in partnership with others.” This answer is most consistent with these guidelines. Psychologists frequently consult with other professionals, such as medical doctors, lawyers, and teachers. It is imperative that they be aware that every profession has professional and ethical standards that must be maintained.
a. only work with fellow psychologists when developing professional and ethical standards for psychological services - Incorrect It is unrealistic to presume that it is possible to limit decision-making to psychologists only. There are many situations, especially in a multidisciplinary setting, where consultation with other professionals is necessary.
c. consult with your local ethics committee for permission to work with other professionals when developing professional and ethical standards for psychological services. - Incorrect Psychologists do not need to obtain permission to work with other professionals.
d. develop professional and ethical standards for mental health services that do not recognize professional differences.
Incorrect Each profession has different professional and ethical responsibilities, and it is not advisable (and often not possible) to homogenize the responsibilities of different professions.
(Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz - 5230)

49

Which of the following best describes ethical guidelines regarding barter as a substitute for the collection of fees for professional psychological services‭?‬‬‬
a. Barter may be acceptable when certain conditions are met.
b. The barter of goods‭ (‬but not services‭) ‬is prohibited by ethical guidelines. ‬‬‬‬‬‬
c. The barter of services‭ (‬but not goods‭) ‬is prohibited by ethical guidelines. ‬‬‬‬‬‬
d. Barter of any kind is prohibited by ethical guidelines.

a. Barter may be acceptable when certain conditions are met. (CORRECT) Barter is prohibited by Standard 6.05 of the APA’s Ethics Code when it is clinically contradindicated or exploitative – in other words, in certain circumstances, barter may be acceptable. The Canadian Code of Ethics does not directly address barter but, to be consistent with the “spirit” of the Code, barter should be avoided when it may be harmful to the client. Barter is explicitly addressed by Standard 6.05 of the APA’s Ethics Code and indirectly addressed by Principles III.31-33 of the Canadian Code of Ethics.
(Ethics & Professional Issues Online Q - 5194)

50

You are subpoenaed to appear at a deposition to testify about a former client of yours.‭ ‬During the deposition,‭ ‬the attorney for the opposing party asks you to provide confidential client information.‭ ‬You should:‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. refuse to provide the information without a court order.
b. assert the privilege unless the client has signed a waiver.
c. provide the information if you believe it is pertinent to the case.
d. provide the information since privilege is waived in this situation.

b. assert the privilege unless the client has signed a waiver. (Correct Answer)‬ Confidential client information should be revealed in a legal proceeding only when the client has signed a waiver or when the court has issued an order indicating that privilege is waived. If the client’s attorney is present, you may ask him or her if you should answer the question. However, if the attorney is not present, you should not provide the information without a waiver from the client but, instead, should assert the privilege on behalf of the client.
a. refuse to provide the information without a court order. - Incorrect You may provide the information if the client has signed a waiver.
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz

51

A client's insurance company pays‭ ‬75%‭ ‬of a client’s therapy fee,‭ ‬while the client is required to pay the remaining ‬25%.‭ ‬The client asks you to bill the insurance company at a higher hourly rate so that he will not have to pay his‭ ‬25%‭ ‬co-payment. ‭ ‬If you do so,‭ ‬you will be acting:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. illegally and unethically.
b. illegally but ethically.
c. legally but unethically.
d. legally and ethically.

a. illegally and unethically. (CORRECT) Misrepresentation of your fee to the insurance company represents fraud and is, therefore, both illegal and unethical. Billing the insurance company at a higher rate so that the client does not have to make his co-payment would be insurance fraud.
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz

52

Vicarious liability is most likely to be an issue when a psychologist is acting in which of the following capacities‭?‬‬
a. faculty member
b. supervisor
c. mentor
d. therapist

b. supervisor (CORRECT) A psychologist may have vicarious liability when his/her employee or supervisee engages in illegal behavior. Vicarious liability (also known as derivative and secondary liability) is a legal term that refers to a person’s responsibility for the actions of another person.
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz

53

Within the context of sexual harassment,‭ “‬quid pro quo‭” ‬refers to:‬‬‬‬
a. a situation in which an employee’s response to sexual demands impacts his/her job.
b. the creation of a‭ "‬hostile environment‭" ‬as a result of sexually offensive conduct. ‬‬‬‬
c. the judgment of a‭ "‬reasonable woman‭" ‬that an act is offensive. ‬‬‬‬
d. overt‭ (‬explicit‭) ‬sexual conduct.‬‬‬‬

a. a situation in which an employee’s response to sexual demands impacts his/her job. (CORRECT) Quid pro quo sexual harassment occurs when a person’s submission to or rejection of sexual advances affects his/her employment status. (Hostile environment sexual harassment is the other legally recognized type of sexual harassment.) “Quid pro quo” is one of two legally recognized types of sexual harassment.
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz

54

Dr.‭ ‬Everett Ernest,‭ ‬a licensed psychologist,‭ ‬has recently started a practice in a small town.‭ ‬He learns from a mutual friend that Dr.‭ ‬Cathy Chatty‭ (‬also a psychologist‭) ‬has been revealing confidential information about some of her clients to members of the community.‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Ernest should:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. contact the clients to let them know what he has heard.
b. obtain consents from the clients and file a complaint with the Ethics Committee.
c. consult with a colleague about the situation.
d. do nothing since the information about Dr.‭ ‬Chatty is hearsay.

c. consult with a colleague about the situation. (Correct Answer)‬ Ethical guidelines require psychologists to take some action in situations in which a fellow professional is believed to have acted unethically. A psychologist, of course, can choose from several alternatives when doing so. Of the answers given, this is the best one. If Dr. Ernest felt comfortable with discussing the issue with Dr. Chatty, that would probably be the best course of action. Since this is not given as an alternative, consulting with a colleague is the best answer.
a. contact the clients to let them know what he has heard. - Incorrect Contacting the clients wouldn't be appropriate.
b. obtain consents from the clients and file a complaint with the Ethics Committee. - Incorrect Filing a complaint is always an option, but given the way that Dr. Ernest found out about the problem, this would probably not be the best course of action. It also wouldn't be appropriate to contact Dr. Chatty's clients.
d. do nothing since the information about Dr.‭ ‬Chatty is hearsay. -‬‬ Incorrect It is because the information is “hearsay” that consulting with a fellow professional might be the best initial course of action.
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz

55

Dr.‭ ‬Marcos Manzetti uses a‭ “‬sliding scale‭” ‬that is based on a client’s current income to set his fees for therapy.‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Manzetti’s practice is:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. ethically acceptable since it serves the best interests of his clients.
b. explicitly recommended in the ethical guidelines.
c. ethically unacceptable since it treats clients inequitably.
d. explicitly prohibited in the ethical guidelines.

a. ethically acceptable since it serves the best interests of his clients. (CORRECT) Sliding scale fees are not explicitly addressed in the APA’s Ethics Code or the Canadian Code of Ethics. Sliding scale fees for psychological services are consistent with the “spirit” of ethical guidelines as long as they are fair and serve the best interests of the client.
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz

56

To serve as an expert witness in a court case,‭ ‬a psychologist must:‬‬
a. be board certified as an expert witness.
b. be qualified by the court to offer opinions and conclusions about the case.
c. have been hired by the person he/she will be testifying about.
d. testify only about what he/she personally observed or obtained.

b. be qualified by the court to offer opinions and conclusions about the case. (CORRECT) Expert witnesses are qualified by the court to offer opinions and conclusions. An expert witness is a person who, because of his/her special training, knowledge, or experience, is qualified to offer an opinion as testimony in a court proceeding.
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz

57

Dr.‭ ‬Harry Holliday,‭ ‬a clinical psychologist,‭ ‬is planning to take a three-week cruise.‭ ‬In terms of his clinical practice,‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Holliday’s‭ ‬best course of action would be to:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. discuss his vacation plans with his current clients ahead of time so that they know he’ll be unavailable during that time.
b. give his clients a phone number where he can be reached.
c. give his clients the phone number of a colleague who has agreed to accept phone calls in emergencies.
d. hire a colleague to take over his appointments while he is on vacation.

c. give his clients the phone number of a colleague who has agreed to accept phone calls in emergencies. (Correct Answer)‬ Of the answers given, this one makes the most sense in terms of the clients' welfare and Dr. Holliday's interests. Ethically, Dr. Holliday would not be required to be available by phone to his clients during his vacation or to provide alternative ongoing services but would be required to provide the clients with a contact for emergency situations. Dr. Holliday should, of course, make some kind of arrangements for his clients while he is on vacation.
(Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz - 5205)

58

Miranda M.,‭ ‬age‭ ‬32,‭ ‬makes an appointment with you at the recommendation of her physician who has diagnosed her recurrent headaches as the result of stress.‭ ‬The woman tells you that a friend of hers was trained in self-hypnosis for tension headaches and says that she also wants training in self-hypnosis.‭ ‬You took a weekend workshop on hypnosis in graduate school but have not used it in your clinical practice.‭ ‬As an ethical psychologist,‭ ‬you should:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. admit your lack of expertise in the use of self-hypnosis and refer the woman to another therapist.
b. advise the woman that the underlying cause of her headaches would probably not be dealt with by self-hypnosis and suggest that she begin individual psychotherapy.
c. accept the woman for treatment and begin training her in self-hypnosis after reviewing your workshop notes.
d. accept the woman for treatment and begin training her in self-hypnosis but obtain consultation if you encounter any problems during the course of treatment.

a. admit your lack of expertise in the use of self-hypnosis and refer the woman to another therapist. (Correct Answer)‬ Of the responses given, this one is most consistent with the requirement to provide services that are within the boundaries of your professional competence. Note that, while it is up to you to determine your competence with regard to a particular service or technique, a weekend workshop in self-hypnosis is clearly inadequate. Providing services within the boundaries of one’s competence is addressed by Standard 2.01 of the APA’s Ethic Code and Principle II.6 of the Canadian Code of Ethics.
b. advise the woman that the underlying cause of her headaches would probably not be dealt with by self-hypnosis and suggest that she begin individual psychotherapy. -
Incorrect It would be unethical to try to convince the client to choose another course of treatment simply because you are not trained in the treatment she desires.
c. accept the woman for treatment and begin training her in self-hypnosis after reviewing your workshop notes. - Incorrect Reviewing your workshop notes would not be adequate training.
d. accept the woman for treatment and begin training her in self-hypnosis but obtain consultation if you encounter any problems during the course of treatment. Incorrect Although this response comes closer to fulfilling the requirements of the ethical guidelines than do responses b and c it falls short of those requirements because it implies that consultation would not be sought unless you believe that you are having problems during the course of treatment. Consequently, response a is a better answer.
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz

59

A graduate student’s dissertation chair,‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬X,‭ ‬turns out to be of little help,‭ ‬and the student ends up obtaining advice and assistance from an associate professor,‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Z. ‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬X does review the dissertation when it is completed and she is listed as the dissertation chair. ‭ ‬Several months later,‭ ‬the student decides to write an article for a professional journal that is based his dissertation research.‭ ‬In terms of publication credit:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. Dr.‭ ‬Z should be listed as first author if her contribution was substantial. ‬‬
b. Dr.‭ ‬Z should be listed as second author if her contribution warrants it.‬‬
c. Dr.‭ ‬X should be listed as second author since she was the student’s official dissertation chair. ‬‬
d. Dr.‭ ‬Y and Dr.‭ ‬Z should be listed as co-authors.‬‬‬‬

b. Dr.‭ ‬Z should be listed as second author if her contribution warrants it.‬‬ (CORRECT) Of the responses given, this one is best because it addresses the need to consider Dr. Z’s contribution to the research project (and Dr. X’s lack of contribution). Ethical guidelines emphasize that it is a person's contribution, not his or her position or status that determines publication credit. Moreover, when a research study is based on a student's dissertation, the student should ordinarily be listed as first author. Publication credit is addressed in Standard 8.12 of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principle III.7 of the Canadian Code of Ethics.
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz

60

Dr.‭ ‬Carl Carlson is a licensed psychologist and professor in the psychology department at a large university.‭ ‬He is approached by a graduate student,‭ ‬Marla M.,‭ ‬age‭ ‬36,‭ ‬who asks him if he’d like to attend a baseball game on Friday night. ‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Carlson is divorced and finds Marla to be a very attractive woman. ‭ ‬In terms of ethical guidelines,‭ ‬if Dr.‭ ‬Carlson accepts Marla’s invitation,‭ ‬he will be:‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
a. clearly violating ethical guidelines.
b. acting ethically since he is not the one who initiated a potential relationship.
c. acting ethically as long as Marla is a student in a department other than the psychology department and will not be taking any classes in the psychology department.
d. acting ethically as long as he does not become sexually involved with Marla until she is no longer affiliated with the university.

c. acting ethically as long as Marla is a student in a department other than the psychology department and will not be taking any classes in the psychology department. (CORRECT) If Marla is a graduate student in another department, a relationship with her would not represent a multiple relationship because Dr. Carlson is not likely to be her instructor or advisor. Dating students is ordinarily prohibited or discouraged because doing so represents a multiple relationship.
a. clearly violating ethical guidelines - Incorrect Dr. Carlson may or may not be violating ethical guidelines, depending on the circumstances
b. acting ethically since he is not the one who initiated a potential relationship - Incorrect The fact that Marla initiated the potential relationship is not relevant.
d. acting ethically as long as he does not become sexually involved with Marla until she is no longer affiliated with the university. - Incorrect As long as Dr. Carlson does not have “supervisory, evaluative, or other authority” over Marla, it would be acceptable for Dr. Carlson to become sexually involved with Marla (see Standards 3.08 and 7.07 of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principle II.28 of the Canadian Code of Ethics). (Note that personal relationships with students might be prohibited by university policy but that this question is asking about ethical guidelines.)
Ethics & Professional Issues Online Quiz