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271

Kurt Lewin's field theory predicts that human behavior is:
a. due more to environmental factors than to psychological factors.
b. due more to biological factors than to environmental factors.
c. a function of both the person's own attributes and the characteristics of the environment.
d. a function of the microsystem, mesosystem, and macrosystem.

c. a function of both the person's own attributes and the characteristics of the environment - CORRECT: Lewin’s field theory predicts that behavior is a function of the person and his/her physical and social environment.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

272

When faced with an approach-avoidance conflict:
a. the closer we get to the goal, the stronger our desire to approach it.
b. the closer we get to the goal, the stronger our desire to avoid it.
c. regardless of our proximity to the goal, the desire to approach the goal is equal to the desire to avoid it.
d. the strength of our desires to approach and to avoid the goal are unaffected by our proximity to it.

b. the closer we get to the goal, the stronger our desire to avoid it - CORRECT: One of the reasons why an approach-avoidance conflict is difficult to resolve is because the closer we get to the goal, the stronger the avoidance motive; and, conversely, the farther we get from the goal, the stronger the approach motive. This causes us to waiver during the decision-making process.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

273

The basic premise of the “Zeigarnik effect" is that:
a. we tend to remember unfinished tasks better than finished ones.
b. we tend to remember finished tasks better than unfinished ones.
c. we tend to remember difficult tasks better than easy ones.
d. we tend to remember easy tasks better than difficult ones.

a. we tend to remember unfinished tasks better than finished ones - CORRECT: The Zeigarnik effect refers to the tendency to remember interrupted and unfinished tasks better than completed ones.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

274

With regard to the effects of crowding, which of the following is true?
a. Men are more likely than women to act aggressively in crowded conditions.
b. Men are less likely than women to be stressed by crowded conditions.
c. Men and women are equally likely to react negatively to crowded conditions.
d. Men and women react aggressively to crowded conditions to about the same degree
but manifest their aggression in different ways.

a. Men are more likely than women to act aggressively in crowded conditions - CORRECT: In general, men are more stressed by and react more negatively to crowded situations.
(Social Psychology Book Review Questions)

275

You have been hired to assist with a research project on process variables in group psychotherapy.‭ ‬The psychologist who is the principal investigator tells you to discourage participants from leaving the group prior to the end of the study because,‭ ‬if too many participants drop out,‭ ‬the study's potential usefulness will be seriously compromised.‭ ‬As an ethical psychologist,‭ ‬you should:
A. refuse to assist with the research project.
B. immediately file a complaint against the psychologist with the psychology licensing board or ethics committee.
C. write a letter to the psychologist,‭ ‬indicating the relevant ethical standards and offering to discuss the matter with him.
D. follow the psychologist''s instructions since,‭ ‬by‭ "‬discouraging" ‬participants from leaving the group,‭ ‬you are not actually coercing them to participate.

C. write a letter to the psychologist,‭ ‬indicating the relevant ethical standards and offering to discuss the matter with him - (CORRECT) By offering to discuss the matter with the psychologist, you are attempting to resolve the matter informally, which is consistent with the requirements of the ethical guidelines. Standard 8.02 of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principle I.30 of the Canadian Code of Ethics apply to this situation. Both require psychologists to allow participants to withdraw from a research study at any time.
A. refuse to assist with the research project - (Incorrect) Resigning from the project would not correct the ethical violation.
B. immediately file a complaint against the psychologist with the psychology licensing board or ethics committee - (Incorrect) Although a report may eventually be necessary, it is not the best first step since this matter may be amenable to an informal resolution (answer c).
D. follow the psychologist''s instructions since,‭ ‬by‭ "‬discouraging" ‬participants from leaving the group,‭ ‬you are not actually coercing them to participate - (Incorrect) This would be unethical, and in so doing, you would be violating the provisions of Standards 1.04 and 1.05 of the Ethics Code and Principles II.40 and II.41 of the Canadian Code of Ethics, which require psychologists to take action when a colleague acts in an unethical way.
(Ethics Online Quiz)

276

A psychologist who already has an established therapeutic relationship with a child is asked to act as an expert witness in a divorce proceeding involving custody of the child.‭ ‬The psychologist's best course of action would be to:
A. decline the request to testify.
B. agree to testify only if she obtains consent from both parents.
C. agree to testify only if she can evaluate all of the involved parties.
D. agree to testify only if her familiarity with the child won''t bias her testimony.

A. decline the request to testify (CORRECT) Since the psychologist has a therapeutic relationship with the child, it would be in the child's best interests for the psychologist to refrain from testifying. Instead, the psychologist’s role should be to provide the child with continued support.
B. agree to testify only if she obtains consent from both parents. Incorrect - Even if both parents consent to her testimony, the psychologist would be engaging in a multiple relationship which ordinarily should be avoided in custody cases. See Standard II.7 of the APA’s Guidelines for Child Custody Evaluations in Divorce Proceedings.
C. agree to testify only if she can evaluate all of the involved parties. Incorrect - This would be the best course of action when a psychologist does not have a previous relationship with any of the involved parties.
D. agree to testify only if her familiarity with the child won''t bias her testimony. Incorrect - One of the reasons that the psychologist should not testify is because it might be difficult to be objective.
(Ethics Online Quiz)

277

If a psychologist acts as both a fact witness for the plaintiff and an expert witness for the court in a criminal trial,‭ ‬she has acted:
A. unethically by accepting dual roles.
B. ethically as long as she did not have a prior relationship with the plaintiff.
C. ethically as long as she clarifies her roles with all parties.
D. ethically as long as she obtains a waiver from the court.

C. ethically as long as she clarifies her roles with all parties - (CORRECT) According to ethical guidelines, accepting multiple roles may be acceptable as long as certain conditions are met – e.g., as long as the psychologist clarifies the nature of the multiples relationships with all involved parties (see Standard 3.05 of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principle I.26 of the Canadian Code of Ethics). In addition, the Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists states that acting as a consultant for one party and a fact witness for another may be acceptable as long as the psychologist clarifies his/her roles with both parties and acts in a way that does not compromise his/her judgment and objectivity.
(Ethics Online Quiz)

278

An employee is receiving counseling from a psychologist through his company's employee assistance program.‭ ‬In this situation,‭ ‬the psychologist can let the employee's supervisor know that the employee is receiving treatment:
A. under no circumstance.
B. only if the employee was referred to the program by the supervisor.
C. only if the supervisor has signed a waiver.
D. as long as no other information about the treatment is given to the supervisor.

B. only if the employee was referred to the program by the supervisor - (CORRECT) Confidentiality is a critical issue in employee assistance programs (EAPs). Under normal circumstances, information about an employee’s condition or treatment is not revealed without the employee's consent. Confidentiality may be breached in the context of EAP's in those situations that it can be breached in other contexts (e.g., when a client is believed to be a danger to him/herself or to others). In addition, when an employee comes for counseling as the result of a referral by his/her supervisor, the supervisor can be given limited information – i.e., the supervisor can be told if the employee kept the appointment, whether the employee needs treatment, and whether the employee has accepted treatment. The supervisor should not be given any other information about the employee without the employee’s consent.
(Ethics Online Quiz)

279

With regard to sexual intimacies with supervisees,‭ ‬the ethics codes published by the American and Canadian Psychological Associations:
A. Do not prohibit sexual relationships with supervisees.
B. prohibit sexual relationships with supervisees under any circumstances.
C. prohibit sexual relationships with current supervisees only when the relationship will impair the psychologist’s objectivity and effectiveness as a supervisor.
D. prohibit sexual relationships with supervisees over whom the psychologist has evaluative authority.

D. prohibit sexual relationships with supervisees over whom the psychologist has evaluative authority - (CORRECT) Standard 7.07 of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principle II.28 of the Canadian Code of Ethics prohibit psychologists from becoming involved in sexual relationships with students and supervisees over whom they have evaluative authority. Being familiar with the exact language of the ethical guidelines would have allowed you to identify the correct response to this question.
(Ethics Online Quiz - 5233)

280

When evaluating a defendant’s competence to stand trial,‭ ‬the focus of the evaluation is on the defendant’s:
A. ability to distinguish right from wrong.
B. ability to comprehend the charges against him/her.
C. mental state at the time he/she committed the crime.
D. DSM-IV diagnosis.

B. ability to comprehend the charges against him/her - (CORRECT) An evaluation for competence to stand trial focuses on the defendant’s ability to comprehend the charges against him/her, to understand the trial process, to cooperate with his/her attorney, etc. The focus of an evaluation to determine a defendant’s competence to stand trial focuses on his/her current psycholegal abilities and impairments.
(Ethics Online Quiz - 5242)

281

Dr.‭ ‬Ja-Hoon Jang is conducting a research study that involves interviewing junior high school students about their relationships with peers.‭ ‬Prior to beginning the study,‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Jang obtained informed consents from the parents of the students as well as assents from the students themselves.‭ ‬During the course of the study,‭ ‬one of the students says he doesn’t want to complete the interview.‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Jang should:
A. tell the student that he cannot withdraw from the study since one of his parents has signed an informed consent.
B. tell the student that he cannot withdraw from the study since he (‬the student) ‬agreed to participate at the beginning of the study.
C. contact the student’s parents to ask them to encourage their son to complete the interview.
D. allow the student to withdraw from the study.

D. allow the student to withdraw from the study - (CORRECT) Ethical guidelines require researchers to allow participants to withdraw at any time from a research study. This answer is most consistent with this requirement. This issue is addressed by Standard 8.02 of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principle I.24 of the Canadian Code of Ethics.
(Ethics Online Q - 5231)

282

Dr.‭ ‬Mansfield Mayhem receives a subpoena requiring him to testify about a current therapy client at a trial.‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Mayhem contacts the client who states that she does not want him to release any confidential information to the court.‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Mayhem should:
A. notify the attorney who issued the subpoena that the client has asserted the privilege and request that he be released from subpoena.
B. do nothing further until he receives an order from the court to appear at the trial.
C. notify the court that he will not be appearing at the trial because the client does not want him to do so.
D. advise the attorney who issued the subpoena that he cannot appear as requested because the client has not given him permission to do so.

A. notify the attorney who issued the subpoena that the client has asserted the privilege and request that he be released from subpoena - (CORRECT) When the client invokes the privilege in this type of situation, the psychologist should contact the client’s attorney or his/her own attorney to discuss the matter. The psychologist can also contact the attorney who issued the subpoena to request to be released from it. Unless the psychologist receives a written release, he/she must appear as requested but would not reveal confidential (privileged) information without the client’s consent or without an order from the court to do so. A subpoena is a legal document that requires a psychologist to appear at a designated time at a legal proceeding. If the client invokes the privilege (says she does not want the therapist to release confidential information to the court), the subpoena is still valid and the psychologist must appear unless he/she has been released from it.
(Ethics Online Q - 5135)

283

The mother of a previous client of yours asks for a copy of her daughter's records. ‭ ‬The daughter saw you for two years and died three months ago when she was ‬38‭ ‬years old.‭ ‬You should:
A. send the mother a copy of the records as requested.
B. send the mother only the information you believe will not be harmful.
C. allow the mother to inspect the records in your office.
D. not release any information to the mother without appropriate authorization.

D. not release any information to the mother without appropriate authorization - (CORRECT) This is the best course of action of those listed in the answers. In general, a psychologist should not release information after a client's death without proper authorization from the client's legal representative. For a discussion of this issue, see R. I. Simon, Clinical psychiatry and the law, American Psychiatric Publishing, Washington, DC, 2003. Laws related to this situation vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction but, in general, confidentiality does not end when a current or former client dies.
(Ethics Online Quiz - 5201)

284

You receive an e-mail from Dr.‭ ‬Brenda Browne,‭ ‬a licensed psychologist,‭ ‬who is currently seeing one of your former clients for a substance abuse disorder. ‭ ‬Dr.‭ ‬Browne asks you to forward the client’s file to her and states that the client has signed a release authorizing you to do so.‭ ‬You should:
A. wait until you receive a request from the client before taking any action.
B. contact the client to discuss the release of information.
C. forward a photocopy of the file to the psychologist as requested.
D. forward a summary of the file to the psychologist that includes only information related to the client’s current condition.

B. contact the client to discuss the release of information - (CORRECT) Dr. Browne would want to verify that the client has, in fact, signed a release and discuss the release and its potential consequences with the client before providing the psychologist with the requested information. Even though the person requesting the client’s record is a licensed psychologist, Dr. Browne would not want to breach confidentiality by providing confidential client information to her without knowing specifically what the client has consented to.
(Ethics Online Quiz - 5137)

285

A psychologist is the supervisor of several interns at a community hospital in a small town and notices that one of the interns seems unenthusiastic and depressed.‭ ‬When he talks to her,‭ ‬she tells him that she’s been very unhappy lately and feels she has no one to turn to.‭ ‬The intern asks the psychologist to see her in therapy,‭ ‬and he agrees to do so.‭ ‬The psychologist has acted:
A. unethically by agreeing to get involved in a dual relationship.
B. unethically by violating the intern''s right to privacy.
C. ethically because they are working in a community hospital in a small town.
D. ethically because the intern is in desperate need of help.

A. unethically by agreeing to get involved in a dual relationship - (CORRECT) Standard 3.05(a) of the Ethics Code states that “a psychologist refrains from entering into a multiple relationship if the multiple relationship could reasonably be expected to impair the psychologist's objectivity, competence, or effectiveness in performing his or her functions as a psychologist, or otherwise risks exploitation or harm to the person with whom the professional relationship exists.” The psychologist in the situation described in this question is entering into a multiple relationship that may threaten his objectivity and effectiveness as a supervisor and therapist. In most situations, psychologists should avoid dual (multiple) relationships. See, e.g., Standard 3.05(a) of APA's Ethics Code and Principle III.33 of the Canadian Code of Ethics.
B. unethically by violating the intern''s right to privacy - Incorrect There is no indication that privacy is an issue in this situation.
C. ethically because they are working in a community hospital in a small town - Incorrect In some circumstances, multiple relationships may be unavoidable. However, the fact that the intern and psychologist work in a community hospital in a small town does not necessarily mean that no other options are available.
D. ethically because the intern is in desperate need of help - Incorrect There is no indication that the intern is in such “desperate need of help” that she cannot wait to see another professional.
(Ethics Online Q - 5121)

286

A psychologist decides to use a computerized test service to facilitate scoring and interpretation of the MMPI-2,‭ ‬which he frequently administers to his clients. ‭ ‬The psychologist should be aware that:
A. the use of computerized interpretations is prohibited by ethical guidelines.
B. computerized scoring and interpretation services are notoriously unreliable.
C. computerized interpretations should always be supplemented with other information obtained by the psychologist.
D. because of their objectivity,‭ ‬computerized interpretations are preferable to subjective interpretations.

C. computerized interpretations should always be supplemented with other information obtained by the psychologist - (CORRECT) The information in a computerized interpretation is limited and, therefore, the best policy is to always supplement computerized interpretations with information from other tests, interviews, observations, etc. Automated scoring and interpretation services are available for a number of psychological tests including the MMPI-2.
A. the use of computerized interpretations is prohibited by ethical guidelines - Incorrect The use of automated interpretation services is not prohibited by ethical guidelines as long as certain standards are met by both the service and the users of the service.
B. computerized scoring and interpretation services are notoriously unreliable - Incorrect The quality of computer interpretations varies from service to service, and it cannot be concluded that all computerized interpretations are "notoriously unreliable."
D. because of their objectivity,‭ ‬computerized interpretations are preferable to subjective interpretations - Incorrect The information provided by computerized interpretations is limited and the accuracy of the interpretation depends on the quality of the service. Therefore, it cannot be concluded that computerized interpretations are necessarily the preferred method of score interpretation.
(Ethics Online Q - 5123)

287

A non-custodial parent asks Dr.‭ ‬Maxine Miller,‭ ‬a school psychologist,‭ ‬for the results of the tests she recently administered to his‭ ‬5th grade son. ‭ ‬If Dr.‭ ‬Miller complies with the father’s request,‭ ‬she will have acted:
A. legally and ethically.
B. legally but unethically.
C. illegally and unethically.
D. illegally but ethically.

A. legally and ethically - (CORRECT) The laws relevant to this situation vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction but, in general, non-custodial parents have the right to obtain information about their children. In California, for example, the law states that "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, access to records and information pertaining to a minor child, including but not limited to medical, dental, and school records, shall not be denied to a parent because such parent is not the child's custodial parent" (Civil Code 4600.5). The rights of non-custodial parents may be limited in terms of obtaining psychological services for their children. However, custody status does not necessarily affect access to certain kinds of information.
(Ethics Online Q - 5207)

288

To be consistent with ethical requirements,‭ ‬David DeFoe,‭ ‬a psychology intern,‭ ‬must do which of the following when a supervisor has legal responsibility for his work‭?
A. He must tell his clients that he is a psychology intern.
B. He must tell his clients that his work is being supervised.
C. He must provide clients with information about his education and experience.
D.He must indicate his status on his business card.

A. He must tell his clients that he is a psychology intern - (CORRECT) This answer is most consistent with ethical guidelines which require interns (trainees) to inform their clients of their professional status. Note that Standard 10.01(c) of the Ethics Code also requires that Mr. DeFoe provide clients with the name of his supervisor.
B. He must tell his clients that his work is being supervised - Incorrect Telling clients that he is being supervised would not be adequate since this would not clearly indicate that he is an intern.
(Ethics Online Q - 5190)

289

Teddy Roosevelt was weak and ill as a child but grew up to be a robust adult and coined the term‭ “‬rugged individualism.‭” ‬He also became associated with the slogan‭ “‬speak softly but carry a big stick.‭” ‬This outcome is predicted by‭ _________ ‬theory of personality.
A. Adler’s
B. Rogers’s
C. Perls’s
D. Jung’s

A. Adler’s - (CORRECT) According to Adler, real or imagined organ inferiority leads to feelings of inferiority. However, people can respond to these feelings in a constructive way and pursue goals that help them achieve superiority. This is a fairly simple question as long as you recall that Adler is associated with the concepts of "feelings of inferiority" and "striving for superiority."
(Clinical Psychology Online Quiz - 4472)

290

Hypnosis is best described as a response to suggestion involving:
A. a measurable physiological change.
B. an alteration in memory,‭ ‬mood,‭ ‬and perception.
C. increased compliance to situational demands.
D. a state of‭ “‬artificial sleep.‭”

B. an alteration in memory,‭ ‬mood,‭ ‬and perception - (CORRECT) M. T. Orne & D. F. Dinges, for example, conclude that the unusual behaviors exhibited by hypnotized people reflect alterations in memory, perception, and mood that occur in response to suggestion (Hypnosis, in H. I. Kaplan & B. J. Sadock (eds.), Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry/V, Baltimore, Williams Wilkins, 1989). The mechanism underlying hypnosis continues to elude researchers but is generally believed to be related to increased suggestibility.
A. a measurable physiological change - Incorrect No physiological mechanism has been consistently linked to the hypnotized state.
C. increased compliance to situational demands - Incorrect Behaviors similar to those elicited from hypnotized individuals can also be elicited from non-hypnotized people in certain situations, suggesting that increased compliance to situational demands does not adequately explain the state of hypnosis.
D. a state of‭ “‬artificial sleep.‭” - Incorrect This was the explanation offered by James Braid in the late 1840s but is no longer considered valid.
(Clinical Psychology Online Quiz - 4475)

291

Which of the following values is least characteristic of Asians and Asian Americans‭?
A. shame
B. self-control
C. egalitarianism
D. fatalism

C. egalitarianism - (CORRECT) Egalitarianism conflicts with traditional Asian values including the value of filial piety. M. K. Ho identified 7 values that are characteristic of traditional Asian cultures and that may also apply to many Asian Americans: filial piety (respect for parents); shame; self-control; assumption of the middle position (consensus); awareness of the social milieu; fatalism; and inconspicuousness (Minority Children and Adolescents in Therapy, Newbury Park, CA, Sage, 1992).
A. shame - Incorrect This is one of the values identified by Ho and others.
B. self-control - Incorrect This has also been identified as a traditional Asian value.
D. fatalism - Incorrect This is another value that is characteristic of Asian cultures.
(Clinical Psychology Online Quiz - 4399)

292

A‭ ‬14-year old boy is arrested for the third time for shoplifting.‭ ‬His mother seems unconcerned and says‭ "‬he's just going through a phase.‭" ‬His father decides to go fishing on the day of the boy's court hearing,‭ ‬and his sister says she can't attend his court hearing because she has too much homework.‭ ‬From the perspective of structural family therapy,‭ ‬this family is best described as:
A. disengaged.
B. closed.
C. emotionally‭ "‬cut-off.‭"
D. skewed.

A. disengaged - (CORRECT) From the perspective of Minuchin's structural family therapy, relationships in this family are characterized by a high degree of disengagement. The family members described in this question do not seem to be involved in or concerned about the lives of other members.
B. closed - Incorrect A closed system does not interact with the environment. Although this family might be a closed system, this is not what is implied by the information given in the question.
C. emotionally‭ "‬cut-off.‭" - Incorrect Emotional cutoff is associated with Bowen, not Minuchin, so it is not the best answer of those given.
D. skewed - Incorrect Marital skew is a term used by Lidz to describe a situation in which spouses attempt to maintain their marriage even though this requires a distortion of reality.
(Clinical Psychology Online Quiz - 4476)

293

Family therapy is probably contraindicated in which of the following situations?
A. The presenting problem involves long-term marital conflict.
B. Family members attribute their problems to one of the members.
C. One of the family members has severe depression.
D. One of the family members has anorexia or bulimia.

C. One of the family members has severe depression - (CORRECT) Depression has been linked to a variety of factors including heredity, biochemical abnormalities, learned helplessness, hostility or aggression turned inward, and illogical schemata. It has not, however, been consistently linked with any particular family factor; and family therapy, therefore, would not be particularly useful as a treatment for this disorder. Family therapy is generally contraindicated when one family member's disturbance, while affecting the family, is basically unrelated to family processes or structure or is so disruptive that it would interfere with the success of therapy.
A. The presenting problem involves long-term marital conflict - Incorrect Family therapy would be appropriate in this situation.
B. Family members attribute their problems to one of the members - Incorrect Family therapy would be appropriate in this situation.
D. One of the family members has anorexia or bulimia - Incorrect Family therapy would be appropriate in this situation since eating disorders (especially anorexia and bulimia) have been linked to family factors.
(Clinical Psychology Online Quiz - 4430)

294

According to Carl Rogers,‭ ‬a therapist is‭ “‬congruent‭” ‬when the therapist:
A. is able to accurately‭ “‬reflect‭” ‬the client’s feelings.
B. avoids becoming‭ ‬“emotionally triangulated‭” ‬with the client.
C. avoids making judgments about the client’s behaviors.
D. is authentic and‭ ‬nondefensive.

D. is authentic &‭ ‬nondefensive - (CORRECT) Congruence involves being genuine, authentic, and nondefensive. Rogers proposed that, for therapy to be effective, the therapist must provide three facilitative conditions – unconditional positive regard, congruence (genuineness), and accurate empathic understanding.
A. is able to accurately‭ “‬reflect‭” ‬the client’s feelings - Incorrect This sounds more like accurate empathic understanding.
B. avoids becoming‭ ‬“emotionally triangulated‭” ‬with the client - Incorrect This does not describe congruence.
C. avoids making judgments about the client’s behaviors - Incorrect This describes unconditional positive regard.
(Clinical Psychology Online Quiz - 4452)

295

Practitioners of Gestalt psychotherapy consider a client’s desire to talk about his/her past as:
A. a useful strategy for helping the client understand the present.
B. a way for the client to avoid coming to terms with the present.
C. the‭ "‬second layer‭" ‬of therapy.
D. a way for achieving‭ "‬closure‭" ‬near the end of therapy.

B. a way for the client to avoid coming to terms with the present - (CORRECT) Gestalt therapists do not deny the significance of the past. However, in therapy, they encourage clients to stay in the present even when discussing past events or feelings since focusing on the past is viewed as a way to avoid the present. Knowing that Gestaltians focus on the here-and-now in therapy would have helped you identify the correct response to this question.
(Clinical Psychology Online Quiz - 4394)

296

For practitioners of humanistic psychotherapy,‭ ‬psychopathology is the result of:
A. blocked potential.
B. ‭"‬dis-integration.‭"
C. unresolved conflicts.
D. severe trauma.

A. blocked potential - (CORRECT) Neurosis and psychosis are generally viewed as the result of interference with the natural potential for growth and self-actualization. Therapists classified as humanists share a belief in the inherent capacity for humans to grow toward the achievement of their potential (i.e., to achieve self-actualization).
(Clinical Psychology Online Quiz - 4467)

297

You are conducting a multiple regression analysis and find that one of your predictors has a negative regression coefficient.‭ ‬This means that:
A. you should eliminate that predictor from the regression equation.
B. the predictor has an inverse relationship with the criterion.
C. the predictor is uncorrelated with the other predictors included in the analysis.
D. you have made a mistake in your data entry or calculations.

B. the predictor has an inverse relationship with the criterion - CORRECT A negative sign means that there is an inverse (negative) correlation between the predictor and the criterion. The size and sign of a predictor’s regression coefficient are related to the nature of the correlation between the predictor and criterion.
A. you should eliminate that predictor from the regression equation - Incorrect A negative sign does not mean there is anything wrong with the predictor.
C. the predictor is uncorrelated with the other predictors included in the analysis - Incorrect This is not implied by a negative regression coefficient.
D. you have made a mistake in your data entry or calculations - Incorrect A negative regression coefficient is a possibility and, therefore, is not necessarily indicative of a data entry or calculation error.
(Stats & Res. Online Quiz - 4885)

298

Statistical regression is a potential threat to a study’s internal validity when:
A. there is a statistically different number of participants in the study’s treatment groups.
B. there is a statistically significant difference in the number of participants who drop out of the different treatment groups during the course of the study.
C. participants are selected for inclusion in the study because of their extremely high or low scores on the pretest.
D. the researcher‭ ‬is unable to‭ ‬randomly assign participants to the different treatment groups.

C. participants are selected for inclusion in the study because of their extremely high or low scores on the pretest - CORRECT When participants are chosen for inclusion in a study because of their extreme scores on the pretest, it is likely that their scores will “regress to the mean” on the post-test, regardless of the effects of the treatment. This can make it difficult to ascertain the effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable. Statistical regression refers to the tendency of extreme scores to “regress to the mean” on retesting – i.e., for examinees who obtained extremely high or extremely low scores on a measure to obtain scores closer to the mean when retested.
(Stats & Res. Online Quiz - 4879)

299

In the context of research design,‭ ‬external validity refers to the researcher’s ability to:
A. manipulate the independent variable.
B. randomly assign participants to treatment groups.
C. determine whether there is a causal relationship between variables.
D. generalize the results of the study to other individuals,‭ ‬settings,‭ ‬and conditions.

D. generalize the results of the study to other individuals,‭ ‬settings,‭ ‬and conditions - CORRECT External validity refers to the ability to generalize the results of a study to groups, settings, and conditions other than those used in the study. Random selection of participants from the population is one factor that helps ensure adequate external validity in terms of generalizability to other individuals. Two standards are used to judge the validity of a research study – internal and external validity.
A. manipulate the independent variable - Incorrect The ability to manipulate the independent variable has a direct impact on a study’s internal validity, which refers to the ability to determine if the independent variable has affected the dependent variable.
B. randomly assign participants to treatment groups - Incorrect Random assignment is important for internal validity.
C. determine whether there is a causal relationship between variables - Incorrect This response describes internal (not external) validity.
(Stats & Res. Online Quiz - 4889)

300

When the correlation between high school students‭’ ‬GPA and amount of time they spend studying each week is‭ ____‬,‭ ‬this means that about‭ ‬15%‭ ‬of variability in GPA is accounted for by amount of time spent studying.
A. .02
B. .15
C. .39
D. .85

C. .39 - CORRECT To simplify the task for this question, you could calculate the square root of .16 (rather than .15). The square root of .16 is .40, so the square root of .15 will be slightly less than .40. Therefore, of the numbers listed in the answers, the best estimate of shared variability is .39. To determine the amount of variability in one variable that is explained by variability in another variable (i.e., the amount of shared variability), you must square the correlation coefficient. Conversely, to determine the correlation coefficient when the shared variability is known, you must calculate the square root of the shared variability.
(Stats & Res. Online Quiz - 4841)