Flashcards in Depressive and Bipolar Disorders Deck (54)
Bipolar Disorders brain scans are closer to those with...
Schizophrenia than depressive disorders
Polythetic Diagnostic Format
Refers to the fact that in order to be diagnosed with a personality disorder, a person must meet a certain number of symptom criteria from a defined criteria set
Depressive and Bipolar Disorders obviously share in common...
Serious deviations in mood that are associated with feelings of little control and significant distress or impairment
A wide spectrum of emotions (continuum ranging from extremely sad to extremely elated)
Detached from reality (comorbid w depressive and bipolar disorders)
Depressive disorders =
Unipolar (versus bipolar disorders)
Depressive and Bipolar Disorders can range from...
Mild to quite serious. In serious cases, can involve psychosis and suicidal behavior.
DSM-5 Depressive Disorders:
Major Depressive Disorder; Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia); Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (read more about this in text)
Major Depressive Disorder Subtype
Possibly “with seasonal pattern” (Most likely winter)
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
Controversial because it is a normal biological occurrence; Believed to possibly be a diagnosis to ensure women can get treatment
DSM-5 Bipolar Disorders
Bipolar I Disorder; Bipolar II Disorder; Cyclothymic Disorder
Defining features of Depressive Episodes (one of these is required):
Extremely depressed mood and/or Anhedonia (Must last at least 2 weeks, Possible to have both)
Loss of pleasure/interest in usual activities
Additional features of Depressive Episodes
Other emotional symptoms (negative about self, others, or in general), Cognitive symptoms, Behavioral symptoms, Physiological symptoms (appetite/sleep changes to too much or too little)
Major Depressive Disorder
At least 5 of 9 depression symptoms have occurred over the same 2-week period, causes impairment, and the individual has never had a manic or hypomanic episode
Single Episode of Depression
Recurrent Episodes of Depression
More common; After one episode, there is a 50% chance of another (70% chance after 2, and 90% chance after 3)
What is the Mean age of Major Depressive Disorder onset ?
During late 20’s, but there is a great deal of variability; Possible at any age
What percent of the US population will experience a Major Depressive Episode at some point?
19% (1 in5)
Gender Differences in Major Depressive Disorder
Females far outnumber males with regard to depression (Females are more likely to get diagnosed); Males tend to act out and Females tend to cry
Dysthymia Defining Features
Symptoms are generally milder but more chronic than major depression; Persists for at least 2 years, with symptoms present most of the day, for more days than not; For some, symptoms can persist unchanged over long periods (≥ 20 years, becomes part of personality) (response to treatment is typically poor in these cases)
What are the main differences between Major Depressive Disorder and Dysthymia?
Chronicity (> in dysthymia) and Severity (> in MDD); Possible to be comorbid
Biological Dimension (Depression)
Short allele 5-HTTLPR gene; Reduced serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine; HPA reactivity and excess cortisol; Shrinkage of hippocampus; Circadian rhythm disturbances; Female hormones after puberty (Many reasons are from individuals biology)
Psychological Dimension (Depression)
Inadequate/insufficient reinforcers; Negative thoughts and specific errors in thinking; Learned helplessness/attributional style; Self-contempt, self-blame, guilt; Rumination/Co-Rumination (Overthinking)
Social Dimension (Depression)
Lack of social support/resources; Early life neglect, maltreatment, parental loss etc
Sociocultural Dimension (Depression)
Female gender roles; Cultural views of depression; Gay/lesbian/bisexual orientation; Exposure to discrimination
Treatment of Depression
Generally promising, but important to start as early as possible!; Lots of possible medications, other medical approaches, and many psychotherapy options; Not uncommon to use a combination of options
Medications for Treatment of Depression
Tricyclics, MAOI’s, and SNRI’s all affect serotonin as well as norepinephrine; SSRI’s affect serotonin only; “Atypical” anti-depressants target dopamine and others
Medical Treatment of Depression
Exercise, diet, and sleep changes may help; Light therapy for seasonal (winter) depression; ECT and other “brain stimulations” as a last resort