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Flashcards in Depressive and Bipolar Disorders Deck (54)
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Bipolar Disorders brain scans are closer to those with...

Schizophrenia than depressive disorders


Polythetic Diagnostic Format

Refers to the fact that in order to be diagnosed with a personality disorder, a person must meet a certain number of symptom criteria from a defined criteria set


Depressive and Bipolar Disorders obviously share in common...

Serious deviations in mood that are associated with feelings of little control and significant distress or impairment



A wide spectrum of emotions (continuum ranging from extremely sad to extremely elated)



Detached from reality (comorbid w depressive and bipolar disorders)


Depressive disorders =

Unipolar (versus bipolar disorders)


Depressive and Bipolar Disorders can range from...

Mild to quite serious. In serious cases, can involve psychosis and suicidal behavior.


DSM-5 Depressive Disorders:

Major Depressive Disorder; Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia); Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (read more about this in text)


Major Depressive Disorder Subtype

Possibly “with seasonal pattern” (Most likely winter)


Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

Controversial because it is a normal biological occurrence; Believed to possibly be a diagnosis to ensure women can get treatment


DSM-5 Bipolar Disorders

Bipolar I Disorder; Bipolar II Disorder; Cyclothymic Disorder


Defining features of Depressive Episodes (one of these is required):

Extremely depressed mood and/or Anhedonia (Must last at least 2 weeks, Possible to have both)



Loss of pleasure/interest in usual activities


Additional features of Depressive Episodes

Other emotional symptoms (negative about self, others, or in general), Cognitive symptoms, Behavioral symptoms, Physiological symptoms (appetite/sleep changes to too much or too little)


Major Depressive Disorder

At least 5 of 9 depression symptoms have occurred over the same 2-week period, causes impairment, and the individual has never had a manic or hypomanic episode


Single Episode of Depression

More unusual


Recurrent Episodes of Depression

More common; After one episode, there is a 50% chance of another (70% chance after 2, and 90% chance after 3)


What is the Mean age of Major Depressive Disorder onset ?

During late 20’s, but there is a great deal of variability; Possible at any age


What percent of the US population will experience a Major Depressive Episode at some point?

19% (1 in5)


Gender Differences in Major Depressive Disorder

Females far outnumber males with regard to depression (Females are more likely to get diagnosed); Males tend to act out and Females tend to cry


Dysthymia Defining Features

Symptoms are generally milder but more chronic than major depression; Persists for at least 2 years, with symptoms present most of the day, for more days than not; For some, symptoms can persist unchanged over long periods (≥ 20 years, becomes part of personality) (response to treatment is typically poor in these cases)


What are the main differences between Major Depressive Disorder and Dysthymia?

Chronicity (> in dysthymia) and Severity (> in MDD); Possible to be comorbid


Biological Dimension (Depression)

Short allele 5-HTTLPR gene; Reduced serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine; HPA reactivity and excess cortisol; Shrinkage of hippocampus; Circadian rhythm disturbances; Female hormones after puberty (Many reasons are from individuals biology)


Psychological Dimension (Depression)

Inadequate/insufficient reinforcers; Negative thoughts and specific errors in thinking; Learned helplessness/attributional style; Self-contempt, self-blame, guilt; Rumination/Co-Rumination (Overthinking)


Social Dimension (Depression)

Lack of social support/resources; Early life neglect, maltreatment, parental loss etc


Sociocultural Dimension (Depression)

Female gender roles; Cultural views of depression; Gay/lesbian/bisexual orientation; Exposure to discrimination


Treatment of Depression

Generally promising, but important to start as early as possible!; Lots of possible medications, other medical approaches, and many psychotherapy options; Not uncommon to use a combination of options


Medications for Treatment of Depression

Tricyclics, MAOI’s, and SNRI’s all affect serotonin as well as norepinephrine; SSRI’s affect serotonin only; “Atypical” anti-depressants target dopamine and others


Medical Treatment of Depression

Exercise, diet, and sleep changes may help; Light therapy for seasonal (winter) depression; ECT and other “brain stimulations” as a last resort


Psychological Treatment of Depression

Behavioral Activation Therapy; Interpersonal Psychotherapy; Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy; Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy