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Flashcards in Eating Disorders Deck (43)
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1

Eating Disorders in DSM-5: As a theme

Involve restrictive or excessive eating, issues of control and other underlying psychological processes, and can result in very serious medical consequences, including hospitalization or death

2

Eating Disorders

Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating Disorder

3

The most common eating diagnosis

“Other Specified Eating Disorder" since 1) disordered eating can take many forms and 2) patterns can change over time

4

Anorexia Nervosa: Defining Characteristics

Extreme weight loss and thinness, seriously under “expected” body weight (Women may show amenorrhea as a sign of this, Many lack insight into how serious the problem is); Fueled by intense fear of obesity or fear of losing control over eating; Body image disturbance underlies this relentless pursuit of thinness, which often begins with “normal” dieting

5

Anorexia Nervosa really stands for...

"Nervous loss of appetite" Refusal to eat or intake calories

6

Amenorrhea

Menstrual Cycle stops

7

Intense fear of obesity or fear of losing control over eating is similar to...

The fear seen in phobias but with food

8

3 main distinctions of Anorexia Nervosa

1) Severally low body weight, 2) Denial of problem, 3) Significant amount of fear

9

Anorexia Nervosa Subtypes

Restricting subtype, Binge-eating/purging subtype; 50/50 btw the two
(We’ll discuss how this differs from bulimia shortly…)

10

Restricting Subtype

Drastically limit caloric intake via dieting and fasting (Not eating as much as normally would or should

11

Binge-eating/purging Subtype

Involves binging on food and then purging it

12

Purging

Get rid of food ingestion somehow (Diuretics, Laxatives, Throwing up) Self induced

13

To determine if one has Anorexia Nervosa...

Consider last 3 months. If person has binged/purged in that time, it’s that subtype. If not, it’s restricting.

14

Anorexia: Facts and Statistics

Mortality rate is 6x general population due to starvation, suicide, and sometimes substance use problems (Other serious medical complications occur as well); 10% with anorexia are male (and prevalence is higher in gay males); Many show OCD tendencies (and BDD specifically); Usually develops in teenage years; More chronic, serious, and resistant to treatment than bulimia

15

Why are the 10% of males with anorexia predominantly gay males?

Because gay men focus on body image more often

16

BDD shown in Anorexia

Body Dysmorphic Disorder; Imagine self as hideous

17

Anorexia is more...

Chronic, serious, and resistant to treatment than bulimia

18

Bulimia Nervosa: Defining Characteristics

Binge eating is the “hallmark” of bulimia and involves consuming excessive amounts of food in one sitting; Must happen at least once a week for three months; During a binge, eating is perceived as uncontrollable and may continue until there is physical pain (due to fullness) and/or high levels of guilt/shame

19

In bulimia nervosa binge eating is...

Required, unlike in anorexia; Far exceed what a typical person would eat

20

Bulimia Nervosa causes individuals to feel uncomfortable...

Physically (too full) and Psychologically (shame or guilt about how much they ate); Feel unable to control

21

Bulimia Nervosa may be comorbid with...

Substance abuse, Mood disorder; Used as coping mechanism

22

Bulimia Nervosa also includes compensatory behaviors such as...

Purging (eliminating food) through self-induced vomiting, diuretics, or laxatives; How does this differ from B/P subtype of AN? Exercising excessively is also common, Could even include fasting between binges

23

Compensatory Behaviors (Bulimia Nervosa)

Behaviors that "undo" the binging (does not have to be purging but may be)

24

Bulimia Nervosa: Facts & Statistics

Much more common than anorexia; Weight loss is much less severe in bulimia (most are within 10% of target body weight); Binges are often impulsive and triggered by emotional distress; Purging methods can result in severe physical complications

25

Purging methods can result in severe physical complications such as...

Erosion of dental enamel, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, kidney failure, cardiac arrhythmia, seizures, intestinal problems, permanent colon damage

26

Binge Eating Disorder

Involves periods of binge eating that are much like those seen in bulimia (excessive eating, loss of control, shame, guilt etc.); Again, at least once a week for 3 months; However, compensatory behavior is not observed; Females more likely to have this disorder (3.5% versus 2% of men); Medical consequences are also common, but are somewhat different and related to excess weight (Does not have to be obese or overweight)

27

Biological Dimension of Eating Disorders

Moderate heritability, Pubertal weight gain, Appetite Neural Circuitry, Dopamine, Ghrelin and Leptin

28

Psychological Dimension of Eating Disorders

Body image dissatisfaction, Low self-esteem; Lack of control; Perfectionism or other personality characteristics; Childhood sexual or physical abuse

29

Social Dimension of Eating Disorders

Parental attitude and behaviors, Parental comments regarding appearance, Weight concerned mothers, History of being teased about size or weight, Peer pressure regarding weight/eating

30

Sociocultural Dimension of Eating Disorders

Social comparison, Media presenting distorted images, Cultural definitions of beauty, Objectification (Female and male bodies evaluated through appearance)