Flashcards in Eating Disorders Deck (43)
Eating Disorders in DSM-5: As a theme
Involve restrictive or excessive eating, issues of control and other underlying psychological processes, and can result in very serious medical consequences, including hospitalization or death
Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating Disorder
The most common eating diagnosis
“Other Specified Eating Disorder" since 1) disordered eating can take many forms and 2) patterns can change over time
Anorexia Nervosa: Defining Characteristics
Extreme weight loss and thinness, seriously under “expected” body weight (Women may show amenorrhea as a sign of this, Many lack insight into how serious the problem is); Fueled by intense fear of obesity or fear of losing control over eating; Body image disturbance underlies this relentless pursuit of thinness, which often begins with “normal” dieting
Anorexia Nervosa really stands for...
"Nervous loss of appetite" Refusal to eat or intake calories
Menstrual Cycle stops
Intense fear of obesity or fear of losing control over eating is similar to...
The fear seen in phobias but with food
3 main distinctions of Anorexia Nervosa
1) Severally low body weight, 2) Denial of problem, 3) Significant amount of fear
Anorexia Nervosa Subtypes
Restricting subtype, Binge-eating/purging subtype; 50/50 btw the two
(We’ll discuss how this differs from bulimia shortly…)
Drastically limit caloric intake via dieting and fasting (Not eating as much as normally would or should
Involves binging on food and then purging it
Get rid of food ingestion somehow (Diuretics, Laxatives, Throwing up) Self induced
To determine if one has Anorexia Nervosa...
Consider last 3 months. If person has binged/purged in that time, it’s that subtype. If not, it’s restricting.
Anorexia: Facts and Statistics
Mortality rate is 6x general population due to starvation, suicide, and sometimes substance use problems (Other serious medical complications occur as well); 10% with anorexia are male (and prevalence is higher in gay males); Many show OCD tendencies (and BDD specifically); Usually develops in teenage years; More chronic, serious, and resistant to treatment than bulimia
Why are the 10% of males with anorexia predominantly gay males?
Because gay men focus on body image more often
BDD shown in Anorexia
Body Dysmorphic Disorder; Imagine self as hideous
Anorexia is more...
Chronic, serious, and resistant to treatment than bulimia
Bulimia Nervosa: Defining Characteristics
Binge eating is the “hallmark” of bulimia and involves consuming excessive amounts of food in one sitting; Must happen at least once a week for three months; During a binge, eating is perceived as uncontrollable and may continue until there is physical pain (due to fullness) and/or high levels of guilt/shame
In bulimia nervosa binge eating is...
Required, unlike in anorexia; Far exceed what a typical person would eat
Bulimia Nervosa causes individuals to feel uncomfortable...
Physically (too full) and Psychologically (shame or guilt about how much they ate); Feel unable to control
Bulimia Nervosa may be comorbid with...
Substance abuse, Mood disorder; Used as coping mechanism
Bulimia Nervosa also includes compensatory behaviors such as...
Purging (eliminating food) through self-induced vomiting, diuretics, or laxatives; How does this differ from B/P subtype of AN? Exercising excessively is also common, Could even include fasting between binges
Compensatory Behaviors (Bulimia Nervosa)
Behaviors that "undo" the binging (does not have to be purging but may be)
Bulimia Nervosa: Facts & Statistics
Much more common than anorexia; Weight loss is much less severe in bulimia (most are within 10% of target body weight); Binges are often impulsive and triggered by emotional distress; Purging methods can result in severe physical complications
Purging methods can result in severe physical complications such as...
Erosion of dental enamel, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, kidney failure, cardiac arrhythmia, seizures, intestinal problems, permanent colon damage
Binge Eating Disorder
Involves periods of binge eating that are much like those seen in bulimia (excessive eating, loss of control, shame, guilt etc.); Again, at least once a week for 3 months; However, compensatory behavior is not observed; Females more likely to have this disorder (3.5% versus 2% of men); Medical consequences are also common, but are somewhat different and related to excess weight (Does not have to be obese or overweight)
Biological Dimension of Eating Disorders
Moderate heritability, Pubertal weight gain, Appetite Neural Circuitry, Dopamine, Ghrelin and Leptin
Psychological Dimension of Eating Disorders
Body image dissatisfaction, Low self-esteem; Lack of control; Perfectionism or other personality characteristics; Childhood sexual or physical abuse
Social Dimension of Eating Disorders
Parental attitude and behaviors, Parental comments regarding appearance, Weight concerned mothers, History of being teased about size or weight, Peer pressure regarding weight/eating