Coastal Systems And Landscapes Flashcards Preview

A Level Physical Geography > Coastal Systems And Landscapes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Coastal Systems And Landscapes Deck (122)
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1

Define system

A set of interrelated components working together towards some kind of process

2

Define closed system and give an example

Closed systems have transfers of energy both into and beyond the system boundary, but no transfer of matter
Eg carbon cycle

3

Define open system and give an example

Where matter and energy can be transferred from the system, across the boundary and into the surrounding environment
Eg hydrological cycle

4

Define isolated system

Isolated systems have no interaction with anything outside the system boundary.
No input / output of matter of energy

5

Define dynamic equilibrium

Where there is a balance between inputs and outputs of a system

6

Define positive feedback

Where the effects of an action are multiplied by the following knock on effects

7

Define negative feedback

Where the effects of an action are cancelled out by its following knock on effects

8

Define subsystems

The earth is divided into 5 subsections / spheres

9

Name the earths 5 subsystems

Atmosphere
Lithosphere
Biosphere
Hydrosphere
Cryosphere

10

Define cascading system

The earths subsystems interlink to form a cascading system

11

Define fetch

Distance travelled by waves

12

Define prevailing wind

Most frequent wind direction

13

Define wavelength

Distance from one wave crest to the next

14

Define wave height

Distance from wave crest to trough

15

Define swash

Wave travelling up the beach

16

Define backwash

Wave travelling from the beach back into the sea

17

Define constructive wave

Characteristics mean more sediment is brought onto the beach in the swash than is removed by the backwash

18

Define destructive wave

Characteristics mean more sediment is removed from the beach by backwash than is brought onto it

19

Give an example of positive feedback in a system

Global temp rises -> oceans warm up -> warm water unable to dissolve gas -> more CO2 released -> more CO2 in atmosphere -> greenhouse effect -> global temp rise

20

Give an example of negative feedback in a system

Increase use of fossil fuels -> more CO2 in atmosphere -> global temp increase -> more plants grow -> absorb CO2 -> reduce in CO2 in atmosphere -> less global warming

21

Facts about the atmosphere

• nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), other gases (1%)
• atmosphere becomes thinner the higher up it is until it reaches space
• divided into 5 layers:
- troposphere
- stratosphere
- mesosphere
- thermosphere
- exosphere
• purpose to filter and stop UV radiation entering the earth

22

Facts about the biosphere

• area on or near the earths surface where life is found
• subdivided into 3 sections:
- lithosphere (rocks)
- atmosphere (air)
- hydrosphere (water)
• stretches 10km above sea level and 8km deep

23

Facts about the lithosphere

• includes the upper mantle and crust
• 'lithos' is Greek for rock
• average 75km thick
• sits on top of asthenosphere

24

Facts about the hydrosphere

• includes all water on, above and below earth
- lakes
- sea
- rivers
- ice
- clouds
• water can be liquid, vapour or ice

25

Facts about the Cryosphere

• the frozen water part of the earths system
- snow
- freshwater ice
- sea ice
- glaciers
- permafrost

26

How might the Cryosphere interact with the lithosphere?

Permafrost
Freeze thaw
Glacial erosion

27

How can you link the hydrosphere to the lithosphere?

Coastal / river erosion -> sediment ->. Deposition

28

How can you link the lithosphere to the biosphere?

Rocks in the lithosphere break down to form soil
Volcanoes - lahar mud flows

29

Is the coast a closed or open system?

Open

30

How can the dynamic equilibrium of the coastal system be upset?

Eg increased deposition of sediment on the beach but no corresponding change in sediment being removed