Volcano Case Study: Calbuco Flashcards Preview

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1

Name my detailed volcano case study

Calbuco, Chile, April 2015

2

What type of volcano is Calbuco?

Stratovolcano

3

How high above sea level is Calbuco?

2,015m elevation

4

Which region is Calbuco situated?

Los Lagosregion, Chile, South America

5

Name the surrounding places around Calbuco

Llanquihue Lake = 11km north
Chapo Lake
Puerto Varas = 41,255 population
Puerto Montt = 176,000 population, 30km away

6

What is the population of Puerto Varas?

41,255

7

What is the population of Puerto Montt?
How far away is it from Calbuco?

176,000
30km

8

When has Calbuco erupted in the past?

1961
1972
Many times before that

9

When was Calbuco's latest eruption?

22nd April 2015 at 18:04

10

How far in advance did scientists detect warning signs of the eruption?

At 17:00, an hour before the eruption

11

What warning signs did scientists detect that foreshadowed the eruption?

Volcanic earthquakes were detected an hour before the eruption

12

How long did the eruption last?

90 minutes

13

How many people were evacuated?

Everyone within a 20km radius was warned to evacuate.
5,000 people left.

14

Did the eruption cause flight cancellations? If so where and why?

Yes, in Chile, Argentina, Uruguay due to ash plumes

15

Why were people advised not to go within 200m of drainages?

Due to lahar hazards

16

How far did pyroclastic flows travel?

On 23rd April they had travelled 7km

17

How far did lahar travel?

On 23rd April they had traveled 15km

18

What did ash fall cause?

Ash fall caused roads and bridges to be blocked

19

How far was tephra ejected on the 23rd April? Where did the deposits fall?

5km, falling mostly to the N and NE

20

How thick was the tephra when it fell?

Tens of cm in Los Lagos region.
A few mm in Los Rios and La Araucania regions.

21

What did the weight of ash cause?

Some nearby houses collapsed

22

What continued to happen up until 30th April?

Volcanic earthquakes continued.
Ash plumes rose even higher.

23

How far did lava flow travel?

Lava reached and entered Chapo Lake

24

Was anyone killed by the eruption?

No

25

Why did Calbuco erupt?

It is situated on the boundaries of 3 tectonic plates: Nazca, S American, Antarctic.
Nazca plate subducts under S American -> mid ocean ridge and trench.
= pressure and seismic activity.

26

What type of plate boundary is Calbuco found at?

Destructive boundary

27

What concerns did the ash cause?

Respiratory illness eg silicosis.
Building collapse.
Failure of crop harvest.

28

Give the social risks of volcanic areas

Ash settles -> respiratory illnesses, building collapse, crop failure.
Flight delays / cancellations.
Injury / death due to pyroclastic flows, lava flows, debris.
People become trapped due to damaged bridges / roads.
Height of Calbuco ash plume -> risk of water contamination -> limits drinking / agricultural water use.

29

Give the economic risks of volcanic areas

Building damage due to ash, p. flows, lava, lahars.
Building damage / injuries -> people can't work -> possible recession.
Flight delays/cancellations due to ash.
Water contamination -> need to import water.

30

Give the environmental risks of volcanic areas

CO2 emissions -> global warming.
Large ash plumes -> cool earth.
Sulfur dioxide emissions -> acid rain.
Water contamination -> instability of ecosystems -> species die.