Coastal Landscape Development Flashcards Preview

A Level Physical Geography > Coastal Landscape Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Coastal Landscape Development Deck (37)
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1

Define spit

A long, narrow ridge of land that joins to the mainland at one end and projects out into the sea / across a river estuary.
Usually on a drift-aligned coast.

2

Which types of coastline do spits usually form at?

Drift-aligned coast

3

Describe the formation of a spit

LSD carries material along coast -> build up of material in more sheltered water (behind headland) -> storms build up more material above HWM (permanent) -> length of ridge (spit) extends -> wave refraction / 2nd most dominant wind curves end of spit towards mainland

4

What feature may form behind a spit?

Salt marsh

5

What factors affect the formation of a spit?

Longshore drift - wave energy, fetch.
Prevailing winds.
River current.

6

Name the types of spits

Simple
Compound

7

Describe the features of a simple spit

Can be straight or recurved.
DO NOT have minor spits / recurved edges along their landward edge.

8

Describe the features of a compound spit

Can be straight or recurved.
DOES have minor spits / recurved edges along their landward side -> possibly marking the position where they terminated in the past

9

What might the minor spits / recurved edges on a compound spit show?

May mark the position where the spit terminated in the past

10

Define tombolo

A spit that joins an island to the mainland

11

Give examples of where spits are found

Spurn Head, East Yorkshire
Sandy Hook Spit, New Jersey, USA

12

Give examples of where tombolos are found

Chesil Beach, UK
The Angel Road of Shodo Island, Japan

13

Give the factors that affect the formation of tombolos

Longshore drift
Prevailing winds
Distance from mainland to island

14

Define offshore bar

Where a ridge of beach material that remains semi-submerged accumulates seaward of the breaker zone

15

Define bar

When a spit grows across a bay and joins two headlands

16

What feature forms behind a bar

Lagoon (former bay)

17

How did some bars form after the last ice age?

The result of onshore migration of material from offshore, as sea levels rose after last ice age

18

By how much can bars be submerged by incoming tides?

Partially / completely submerged

19

Give examples of where bars are found

Slapton Ley, Devon
Chesil Beach - formed by combination of onshore migration + LSD.
Arabat Spit, Sea of Azov - longest spit in the world, joins towns in Ukrain to Crimea.

20

Give the factors affecting the formation of bars

LSD - wave energy, fetch
Prevailing wind
Distance from headland to headland

21

How has sea level changed over the past 10,000 years?

Sea level has generally been rising over the past 20,00 years.

Sea level appears to be lowering in Scotland (northwest), due to isostatic uplift of land.

22

Name the coastal features that form due to rising sea level

Dalmatian coast
Fjords
Rias
Estuaries
Shingle beaches

23

What is a fjord? Give an example

Drowned glacial valley.

Eg Sogne fjord, Norway

24

What is a ria? Give an example

Drowned river valley.

Eg River Dart, Devon

25

What is an estuary? Give an example

Drowned, shallow, lowland river valleys.

Eg Humber estuary

26

How do shingle beaches form?

Where sediments previously deposited on the contents shelf were above sea level.
Rising sea levels have swept up the sediment and deposited it on present day coasts.

27

Name the coastal features that form due to falling sea level

Raised beaches / relict cliffs
Marine platform

28

What is a raised beach / relict cliff? Give an example

Beaches and cliff lines elevated above sea level and exposed following deglaciation -> land height rises.

Eg Isle of Arran, Scotland

29

What is a marine platform? How does it form?

Where an expanse of gently sloping, formerly submerged land has been exposed by uplift of land / lowering sea level

30

What is a Dalmatian coastline? How do they form? Give an example

Form where valleys (esp glacial valleys) lie parallel to each other.
Valleys are flooded by sea level rise -> tops of valleys remain above sea surface -> appear to be islands that run parallel to the coast.