Flashcards in chapter 4 - Cellular Metabolism Deck (14)
a series of chemical reactions that take place inside of our bodies to sustain life
the two major types of metabolic reactions are:
the building of larger and new molecules
the breakdown of larger molecules into smaller ones
cellular respiration requires three types of reaction:
Citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle)
electron transport chain
(this is an example of a metabolic pathway)
Oxidisation is loss
Reduction is gain
gaining and loosing electrons (gaining electrons reduces the charge of an atom. therefore reduction is gain and oxidisation is loss)
oxidation-reduction reactions occur when:
one substance gains oxygen or looses hydrogen (the process of oxidation), causing another substance to gain electrons (the process of reduction). These coupled reactions are also referred to as redox reactions.
When bonds between the atoms of molecules are broken, chemical energy is released.
involves the breakdown of glucose to yield lactic acid or pyruvic acid, releasing energy as ATP
The citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle)
involves metabolism of carbon chains of glucose, fatty acids and amino acids. It yields carbon dioxide, water and ATP.
The electron transport chain
ATP electrons still contain most of the chemical energy of the original glucose molecule. Because oxygen is the final electron receptor, this overall process (glycolysis, Krebs cycle and electron transport chain) is called aerobic respiration.
what does it do: Aerobic respiration
generates energy in the mitochondria
what does it do: anaerobic respiration
occurs outside of the mitochondria releasing less energy then aerobic respiration
the most important anabolic nutrients are:
amino acids, which form all protein structures and most of the body's functional molecules. Protein synthesis occurs on ribosomes, regulated by hormones such as growth hormone, sex hormones, thyroxine and others.