chapter 4 - Cellular Metabolism Flashcards Preview

Paramedic Programme A&P > chapter 4 - Cellular Metabolism > Flashcards

Flashcards in chapter 4 - Cellular Metabolism Deck (14)
Loading flashcards...
1

define metabolism

a series of chemical reactions that take place inside of our bodies to sustain life

2

the two major types of metabolic reactions are:

Anabolism
Catabolism

3

define: Anabolism

the building of larger and new molecules

4

define: catabolism

the breakdown of larger molecules into smaller ones

5

cellular respiration requires three types of reaction:

Glycolysis
Citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle)
electron transport chain

(this is an example of a metabolic pathway)

6

OIL RIG

Oxidisation is loss
Reduction is gain

gaining and loosing electrons (gaining electrons reduces the charge of an atom. therefore reduction is gain and oxidisation is loss)

7

oxidation-reduction reactions occur when:

one substance gains oxygen or looses hydrogen (the process of oxidation), causing another substance to gain electrons (the process of reduction). These coupled reactions are also referred to as redox reactions.

When bonds between the atoms of molecules are broken, chemical energy is released.

8

glycolysis

involves the breakdown of glucose to yield lactic acid or pyruvic acid, releasing energy as ATP

9

The citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle)

involves metabolism of carbon chains of glucose, fatty acids and amino acids. It yields carbon dioxide, water and ATP.

10

The electron transport chain

ATP electrons still contain most of the chemical energy of the original glucose molecule. Because oxygen is the final electron receptor, this overall process (glycolysis, Krebs cycle and electron transport chain) is called aerobic respiration.

11

what does it do: Aerobic respiration

generates energy in the mitochondria

12

what does it do: anaerobic respiration

occurs outside of the mitochondria releasing less energy then aerobic respiration

13

the most important anabolic nutrients are:

amino acids, which form all protein structures and most of the body's functional molecules. Protein synthesis occurs on ribosomes, regulated by hormones such as growth hormone, sex hormones, thyroxine and others.

14

metabolic pathways

sequences of enzymatic actions control cellular respiration, anabolic reactions and catabolic reactions. Each sequence is called a metabolic pathway.

example of a metabolic pathway is glycolysis>Krebs cycle>electron transport chain