Chapter 1 - Intro to A&P Flashcards Preview

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1

Define anatomy

The study of body parts, forms and structures

2

Define physiology

Study of normal body functions

3

Name the major body cavities

Two main cavities:
Dorsal (cranial and vertebral)
Ventral (thoracic and abdominopelvic)

4

Describe the Dorsal cavity

Protects the organs of the nervous system.
The cranial cavity of the skull encases the brain.
The vertebral cavity, inside the spinal column, encases the spinal cord.
The cranial and spinal cavities are continuous with each other.

5

Describe the Ventral cavity

Contains most of the bodies organs.
Houses the viscera (visceral organs).
Divided into thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.
Thoracic cavity is surrounded by chest muscles and the ribs and is separated from the abdominopelvic cavity by the diaphragm.
The abdominopelvic cavity is comprised by abdominal and pelvic cavity not seperated by membrane or muscle.
The abdominal and pelvic cavity are not aligned with the pelvis ‘tipping’ away in a perpendicular fashion.

6

Dorsal and ventral cavities are lined with?

Serous membrane.
Composed of two layers: parietal membrane and Visceral membrane.
Parietal membrane is fused to the cavity walls
Visceral membrane covers organs inside the cavity
Both membranes secrete serous fluid into the cavity in between them. Allowing organs to slide across each other and the cavity walls without friction. (Heart pumping, stomach digesting)

7

Define:Viscera

The internal organs inside the ventral cavity.

8

Define: Mediastinum

Separates the thoracic cavity into right and left halves and contains the heart, trachea, oesophagus and thymus gland.

9

membrane of heart

surrounded by a double walled sac known as the pericardium.
superficial loose fitting section known as the Fibrous Pericardium.
this protects the heart, connects it to surrounding structures and keeps it from over-filling with blood.
below the fibrous pericardium is the Serous Pericardium, a thin double layered membrane that forms a closed sac containing the heart.
Serous Pericardium has a parietal layer, lining the internal layer of fibrous pericardium.
A visceral layer (epicardium) thats continues to cover the external heart surface.
All these structures are housed in the pericardial cavity.

10

membrane of the lungs

Lined with the Parietal Pleura and covered by the Visceral Pleura.
There is no space between these pleural membranes but the region is still referred to as the Pleural Cavity

11

Abdominopelvic cavity membrane

Lined with peritoneal membranes:
parietal peritoneum lining the walls
visceral peritoneum covering each organ.
between the membranes, the potential space is called the Peritoneal Cavity.
Organs in the Abdominopelvic cavity are located either inside the peritoneum (intraperitoneal) or behind the peritoneum (retroperitoneal).

12

anatomic planes

add pictures
frontal plane - Lateral
Sagittal plane - anterior/posterior
Transverse place - superior/inferior

13

define: inferior

a body part is below another body part or is located toward the feet.

i.e the neck is inferior to the head

14

define: Superior

a body part is above another body part or is located toward the head.

i.e. The thoracic cavity is superior to the abdominopelvic cavity

15

define: Anterior (ventral)

Toward the front

i.e. the eyes are anterior to the brain

16

define: posterior (dorsal)

toward the back

i.e. the pharynx is posterior to the mouth

17

define: Contralateral

Refers to structures on the opposite side

i.e. if eight leg is injured the pt may have to put most of their weight on the contralateral leg instead of using both equally.

18

define: Lateral

toward the side as related to the midline of the body

i.e. the ears are lateral to the eyes

19

define: Bilateral

Refers to paired structures, with one on each side of the body

i.e. the lungs are bilateral

20

Define: Ipsilateral

Refers to structures on the same side

I.e. the right kidney and the right lung are ipsilateral

21

Define: Medial

Refers to an imaginary midline that divides the body into left and right halves

I.e. the nose is medial ( loser to the bodies midline) to the eyes

22

Define: Distal

A body part is farther from the point of attachment to the trunk than another part

I.e. the fingers are distal to the wrist

23

Define: Proximal

Body part is closer to the point of attachment to the trunk than another part

i.e. the elbow is proximal to the wrist

24

Define: deep

A body part is more internal than another part

i.e. the dermis is the deep layer of the skin

25

Define: superficial

A body part is more external than another part

i.e. the epidermis is the superficial layer of the skin

26

Name the 9 abdominal regions

Right hypochondriac region
Epigastric region
Left hypochondriac region
Right lumbar region
Umbilical region
Left lumbar region
Right iliac region
Hypogastric region
Left iliac region

27

List the systems of the body

Integumentary
Skeletal
Muscular
Nervous
Endocrine
Cardiovascular
Lymphatic
Digestive
Respiratory
Urinary
Reproductive

28

Organs in the integumentary system

Skin
Hair
Nails
Sebaceous (oil) glands
Sweat glands

29

Organs in the skeletal system

Bones
Ligaments
Cartilages

30

Organs in the muscular system

Muscles
Tendons