Chapter 8 - Articulations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Articulations Deck (28)
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1

Non axial movement

Slipping movements only as there is no axis around which the movement can take place.

2

Uniaxial movement

Movement within one plane

3

Biaxial movement

Movement in two planes

4

Multiaxial movement

Movement in or around all three planes or space and axes.

5

Three general types of movement

Angular
Gliding
Rotation

6

Angular movements

Decrease or increase the angle between two bones.

This can occur in any body plane and includes - extension, flexion, hyperextension, abduction, adduction and circumduction

7

Gliding movements

When a flat bond surface slips over or glides over another in a side to side or back and forth motion. There is no major rotation or angulation.

Examples are movements of the intertarsal and intercarpal joints. And between the flat articular vertebral processes.

8

Rotation movements

Involve the turning of a bone around its long axes. This is common at the hip and shoulder joints and is the singular movement between the first two cervical vertebrae.

Rotation may be directed away form the midline or towards it.

Examples include the thighs medial rotation and when the anterior surface of the femur moves towards the bodies median plane. The opposite of medial rotation is lateral rotation.

9

Flexion

Bending parts at a joint so they become closer together.

Usually occurs on the sagittal plane.

10

Extension

Straighten parts at a joint so they move further apart.

The angle between the articulating bones is increased

11

Hyperextension

Extending the parts at a joint beyond the normal range of motion

12

Dorsiflexion

moving the ankle so the top of the foot comes closer to the shin

13

Plantarflexion

moving the ankle so the foot moves further form the shin.

14

Wrist extension

moving the wrist so the back of the hand comes closer to the arm

15

wrist flexion

moving the wrist so the palm of the hand comes closer to the forearm

16

Abduction

moving parts away form the midline or median plane.

when the arm or thigh is raised laterally

for the toes and fingers it means spreading them apart

however the lateral bending of the trunk in the frontal plane is called lateral flexion and not abduction

17

Adduction

moving parts towards the midline of the body.

for the fingers and toes its moving them towards the midline of the foot or hand

18

rotation

moving a part around its axis

happens at hip, shoulder and first two cervical vertebrae

19

Circumduction

Moving a part so its end follows a circular path, as if describing a cone in space

20

Pronation

turning the hand so the palm is downward facing

the forearm is rotated medially moving the distal end of the radius across the ulna, forming an x between the two bones. The forearm remains in this position when a person is standing but relaxed.

pronation is not as strong as supination

21

supination

turning the hand so the palm is upwards, facing anteriorly

the forearm is rotated laterally.

In the anatomical position the hand is supinated while the radius and ulna are parallel

22

Eversion

turning the foot so the plantar surface is facing laterally

23

Inversion

turning the foot so the plantar surface is facing medially

24

Protraction

moving a part forward, which is a non angular anterior movement in the transverse plane.

the mandible is protracted when you stick your jaw out

25

retraction

moving a part backward, which is a non angular posterior movement in the transverse plane

the mandible is retracted when you pull your jaw back after sticking it out

26

Elevation

raising a part or lifting it superiorly

when you shrug your shoulders the scapulae are elevated

27

Depression

lowering a part or moving it inferiorly

when you chew, the mandible is elevated and depressed repeatedly

28

Opposition and Reposition

involving the saddle joint between the trapezium and metacarpal

the thumb performs opposition when you touch it to the tips of the other fingers on the same hand

opposition allows us to grab a hammer or glass of water.

reposition returns the thumb and fingers form opposition