Chapter 31 Soft-Tissue Trauma Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 31 Soft-Tissue Trauma Deck (65)
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1. The MOST significant immediate threat to a patient with a soft-tissue injury is: A) nerve damage. B) infection. C) disfigurement. D) hemorrhage.

Ans: D Page: 1545

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2. The skin is also referred to as the: A) melanin. B) integument. C) epithelium. D) collagen.

Ans: B Page: 1545

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3. All of the following are functions of the skin, EXCEPT: A) providing the immune response for the body. B) protecting the underlying tissue from injury. C) sensing changes in the external environment. D) assisting in the regulation of body temperature.

Ans: A Page: 1545-1546

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4. The outermost layer of the epidermis: A) consists of nonliving cells that are continuously being shed. B) is a tough, highly elastic layer than contains melanin granules. C) contains numerous fibroblasts that secrete collagen and elastin. D) is comprised of living cells that give rise to the stratum corneum.

Ans: A Page: 1546

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5. _________ is a fibrous protein that gives the skin high resistance to breakage under mechanical stress. A) Fibrin B) Elastin C) Collagen D) Melanin

Ans: C Page: 1546

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6. When the ambient temperature is high: A) the dermis produces less collagen, which temporarily decreases the skin's ability to retain warmth. B) blood vessels in the dermis dilate, which increases blood flow to the skin and allows heat to dissipate. C) sweat glands in the epidermis produce sweat, which is evaporated from the skin surface by the air. D) constriction of the vessels in the dermis brings warm blood to the surface of the skin, where it is eliminated.

Ans: B Page: 1546

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7. Physical injury to the skin: A) causes a decrease in the production of macrophages and lymphocytes, thus increasing the risk of infection. B) commonly destroys the stratum corneum, the deep dermal layer of the skin, and causes nerve damage. C) promotes cutaneous vasoconstriction, which shunts blood away from the injury and manifests as pallor around the injury site. D) triggers mast cells to degranulate and synthesize special chemical mediators, which causes the injured area to become warm and red.

Ans: D Page: 1547

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8. The skin helps regulate body temperature through: A) peripheral vasodilation, which shunts cool blood to the core of the body. B) the production of sweat, which is evaporated from the surface of the skin. C) increased elastin production, which provides insulation to the epidermis. D) cutaneous vasoconstriction, which brings warm blood to the skin's surface.

Ans: B Page: 1547

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9. Which of the following substances is produced in the dermis and keeps the skin supple so that it doesn't crack? A) Sebum B) Elastin C) Collagen D) Ground substance

Ans: A Page: 1547

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10. The subcutaneous tissue is: A) the layer of tissue above the dermis that mainly produces sweat. B) a thin layer of tissue from which blood vessels exclusively originate. C) also called the superficial fascia and consists mainly of adipose tissue. D) the deep fascial layer that ensheathes muscle and other internal structures.

Ans: C Page: 1547

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11. A laceration that lies perpendicular to the skin's tension lines: A) results in minimal external bleeding and typically heals spontaneously within 2 to 3 hours. B) generally remains closed and does not require suturing or other methods of wound closure. C) often remains open, heals more slowly, and is more likely to result in abnormal scar formation. D) does not disrupt the body's blood-clotting process and tends to heal without the formation of a scar.

Ans: C Page: 1547

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12. Which of the following statements regarding soft-tissue injuries is correct? A) Most soft-tissue injuries require immediate care to prevent blood loss. B) They are often the most obvious, but are seldom the most life threatening. C) Soft-tissue injuries should be covered immediately upon patient contact. D) Most soft-tissue injuries are hidden and require a systematic assessment.

Ans: B Page: 1545

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13. During the process of wound healing, hemostasis: A) permanently stops the wound from bleeding and facilitates healing. B) is a physiologic process in which the body's platelets are destroyed. C) occurs when the bone marrow transiently produces more red blood cells. D) temporarily stops bleeding via vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation.

Ans: D Page: 1549

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14. During the inflammation phase of the healing process: A) white blood cells are forced away from the injury by vasoconstriction. B) histamine causes vasodilation and increased blood flow to the injury. C) damaged cell parts and microorganisms invade and infect the wound. D) the processes of epithelialization and collagen synthesis are impaired.

Ans: B Page: 1549

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15. During the neovascularization phase of the wound healing process: A) new blood vessels form as the body attempts to bring oxygen and nutrients to the injured tissue. B) histamine makes the capillaries more permeable, resulting in swelling in and around the injury site. C) collagen provides stability to the damaged tissue and joins wound borders, thereby closing the open tissue. D) microscopic vasculature damaged by the injury is digested by macrophages through a process called phagocytosis.

Ans: A Page: 1549

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16. Which of the following conditions or factors would MOST likely delay or impair healing of a wound? A) Diabetes B) Obesity C) Alcohol use D) Hypertension

Ans: A Page: 1550

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17. A patient taking _______________ would MOST likely experience a delay in the healing of a wound. A) antidepressants B) acetaminophen C) antihypertensives D) corticosteroids

Ans: D Page: 1550

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18. A wound is at HIGHEST risk for infection if: A) the patient uses an antibacterial spray. B) it occurs to any part of the facial area. C) it is caused by a human or animal bite. D) the patient has poor peripheral circulation.

Ans: C Page: 1550

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19. Which of the following patients is at HIGHEST risk for a pressure injury? A) An obese patient B) A bedridden patient C) A hypertensive patient D) A patient with diabetes

Ans: B Page: 1550

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20. Which of the following wounds usually requires substantial irrigation and debridement prior to closure? A) Degloving injuries B) Jagged lacerations C) Any wound to the face D) Wounds over tension lines

Ans: A Page: 1550

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21. Which of the following is the MOST common cause of necrotizing fasciitis? A) A fungal infection B) Clostridium tetani C) Hemolytic streptococci D) Clostridium perfringens

Ans: C Page: 1551

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22. Systemic signs of infection secondary to a soft-tissue injury include: A) erythema. B) pus drainage. C) fever and chills. D) lymphangitis.

Ans: C Page: 1550

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23. Necrosis of tissue caused by an anaerobic, toxin-producing bacterium is called: A) tetanus. B) gangrene. C) fasciitis. D) lymphedema.

Ans: B Page: 1550

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24. An infection characterized by painful muscle contractions is called: A) pertussis. B) polio. C) rabies. D) tetanus.

Ans: D Page: 1551

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25. The swelling that occurs in conjunction with a contusion is caused by: A) inflammation of the injured blood vessels. B) rupture of large blood vessels in the dermis. C) aggregation of platelets to the injured site. D) leakage of fluid into spaces between the cells.

Ans: D Page: 1547

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26. In contrast to a contusion, a hematoma is: A) accompanied by ecchymosis. B) caused by large vessel damage. C) rarely accompanied by a bruise. D) a less significant closed injury.

Ans: B Page: 1547

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27. Whether the contamination from an open wound produces infection depends MOSTLY on: A) how the wound is managed. B) the location of the wound. C) the patient's medical history. D) how large the open wound is.

Ans: A Page: 1548

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28. A patient with nerve compromise following an open injury to the hand: A) should be given analgesia for the pain. B) will likely lose all neurologic function. C) requires prompt transport to the hospital. D) will not be able to move his or her hand.

Ans: C Page: 1548

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29. Compared to the bleeding from an open wound, bleeding from a closed wound: A) is limited because the skin is unbroken. B) generally requires surgical intervention. C) is not significant enough to produce shock. D) can usually be controlled with direct pressure.

Ans: A Page: 1548

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30. Primary treatment in the prehospital setting for an abrasion involves: A) administering a narcotic analgesic. B) applying an antibiotic ointment or cream. C) covering it lightly with a sterile dressing. D) thoroughly cleaning it to prevent infection.

Ans: C Page: 1560