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1

The Goal of Respiration

Oxygenation of blood

Elimination of carbon dioxide

2

Ventilation

Actual movement of air in the conducting
respiratory passageway

Air inhaled per unit time

3

Distribution

Air distributed to 300 million alveoli

4

Perfusion

Migration of fluid through a barrier

Oxygen-poor vascular supply is perfused
to six billion capillaries that supply alveoli

5

Diffusion

Gas exchange across the alveolar-capillary
membrane

6

The Work of Respiration

Respiration requires muscular effort

Efficiency of respiration depends on how
individuals control their muscles of respiration

Respiration is the force behind speech production

Respiration provides energy for oral communication

7

Factors that Affect Respiration

Exercise

Age

Muscle weakness

Illness

8

Inspiration

Quiet inspiration
Active inspiration

9

Passive expiration

System is restored to a resting position after respiration

Driven by forces of torque, elasticity, and gravity

10

Active expiration

Muscular effort enhances act of expiration

Abdomen is compressed

Muscles reduce size of thorax

Rib cage is pulled down

Air is pulled out of the lungs

11

Respiratory Cycle

Defined as one inspiration and one
expiration

Adults complete between 12 and 18
cycles of respiration per minute

Normal Cycle:
Inspiration takes up to 40% of the cycle
Expiration takes up to 60% of the cycle

During speech:
Inspiration takes up 10% of the cycle
Expiration takes up 90% of the cycle
Checking action uses muscles to restrain expiration

12

Quiet tidal respiration

Defined as quiet flow of air into and out of lungs

Involves about 500 ml of air with each cycle

Individuals process around 6,000 to 8,000 (6 to 8 liters) of air every minute

Minute volume: air involved in one minute of respiration

13

Spirometer

Used to measure respiration

Rate of air flow in respiration

Volume

Lung capacities

Pressures

14

Volume

Measured in liters (L), milliliters (ml),
cubic centimeters (cc), and sometimes
cubic inches


15

Inspiratory reserve volume

Air inspired beyond tidal volume

16

Expiratory reserve volume

Air expired beyond tidal volume

17

Dead space air

Air that cannot undergo gas exchange

18

Capacities

Refers to combined volumes that
express physiological limits

19

Vital capacity

Volume of air that can be inspired after a maximal
expiration

20

Functional residual capacity

Air that remains in the body after passive
inspiration

21

Inspiratory capacity

Volume that can be inspired from resting lung
volume

22

Total lung capacity

Sum of all lung capacities

23

Volumes, Capacities and Age

Total lung capacity is the same across
the lifespan
Age can affect selected volumes and
capacities in healthy males
Vital, inspiratory, and expiratory reserve
capacities diminish with age
Functional residual capacity increases
with age
Increase due to loss of inspiratory capacity

24

Volumes, Capacities and Age

Total lung capacity is the same across
the lifespan

Age can affect selected volumes and
capacities in healthy males

Vital, inspiratory, and expiratory reserve
capacities diminish with age

Functional residual capacity increases
with age

Increase due to loss of inspiratory capacity

25

Pressures

Respiration involves the balance of
pressures

There are five specific types of pressure

26

Intrapleural pressure

Pressure between the visceral and parietal pleural
membranes
Remains constantly negative, especially during inspiration

27

Intrapleural pressure

Pressure between the visceral and parietal pleural
membranes

Remains constantly negative, especially during inspiration

28

Intraoral pressure

Pressure measured within the oral cavity

29

Atmospheric pressure

Pressure of the atmosphere generated by its weight; approximately 760 mm Hg

Pressures are all measured relative to atmospheric pressure

30

Volumes and Body Posture

Body position and posture play a
significant role in respiratory volumes

In the reclining position, the abdomen is affected by the force of gravity
Resting lung volume decreases
Effort required for inspiration increases