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1

Anatomy

The structure of an organism

2

Physiology

The function of a living organism and its components

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The trunk or torso is

composed of the
thorax (chest) and the abdomen (belly)

4

caput

head

5

Skull: Cranial portion

Contains the brain and its components

6

Skull: Facial portion

Contains the mouth, pharynx, nasal cavity,
and teeth

7

Cranial cavity

Brain
Vertebral canal
Spinal cord

8

Thoracic cavity

Lungs and related structures

9

Pericardial cavity

Heart

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Abdominal cavity

Digestive organs

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Anatomical position

Body erect
Palms, arms, and hands face forward

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Axis

The imaginary midline around which
the body pivots

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The axial skeleton

Head and trunk
Spinal cord is axis

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The appendicular skeleton

Lower limbs
Upper limbs
Refer to Figure 1-1: Terms of Orientation

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Frontal plane

Divides body into front and back halves

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Sagittal plane

Divides body into right and left halves

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Transverse plane

Divides body into upper and lower halves

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Anterior or ventral surface

Front of body

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Posterior or dorsal surface

Back of body

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Superficial surface

Surface of body

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Deep

Direction away from the surface

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Deep Surface

Direction away from the surface

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Superior Body Position

Upper regions of body

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Inferior Body Position

Lower regions of body

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Prone Body Position

Body horizontal with face down

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Supine Body Position

Body horizontal with face up

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Lateral

The side

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Proximal

Point closest to the trunk

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Distal

Point farthest from the trunk

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Flexion

Bending at a joint