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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (23)
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1

Respiration

The exchange of gas
between an organism and its
environment

2

Inspiration

Bringing oxygen to the body’s
cells by breathing in

3

Expiration

Eliminating carbon dioxide
from the body’s cells by breathing out

4

Air Pressure

The force exerted on the
walls of a chamber by molecules of air

5

Boyle’s Law

As the volume of a container increases, air
pressure within the container (lungs)
decreases
As the volume of a container decreases, air
pressure within the container (lungs)
increases

6

Vertebral Column

-Part of the bony thorax

-Composed of 33 segments of bone

-Made of vertebra (plural, vertebrae)

-Vertebrae numbered sequentially by
section from superior to inferior

7

Five Divisions of the Vertebral Column

7 Cervical vertebrae
12 Thoracic vertebrae
5 Lumbar vertebrae
5 Sacral vertebrae compose sacrum
4 Fused vertebrae compose coccyx

8

Rib Cage

-Part of bony thorax

-Composed of twelve ribs

-7 true ribs, 3 false ribs, 2 floating ribs

-Has a curved barrel shape

-Sternum serves as focal point

9

The Ribs

-Attached to the vertebral column

-Slope downward during rest

-Elevate during inspiration

10

Pelvic Girdle

-Part of the bony thorax

-Pelvic girdle includes the ilium, sacrum,
pubic bone, and ischium

11

Pectoral Girdle

-Part of the bony thorax

-Pectoral or shoulder girdle includes the
scapula and clavicle bones

-Support the upper extremities

-Attach to the sternum

12

Respiratory Passageway

-Part of visceral thorax

-Connects lungs with the external
environment

-Consists of these structures
Oral and nasal cavities
Larynx and trachea
Bronchial tree and tubes

-Protects lungs
Safeguards lungs against pollutants
Beating epithelia that line the passageway remove pollutants
Lymphatic system removes remaining pollutants
Coughing expels particles caught in mucus

-Warms and humidifies air as it enters lungs

13

Bronchial Tree

The bronchial tree is characterized by
branching of large tubes into smaller
tubes

Two main tubes go from trachea to
lungs

Bronchial tubes divide further in the
lungs

Small tubes terminate in the final
terminal respiratory bronchioles

14

Lungs

Located in the visceral thorax

Composed of vascular, elastic tissue
Right lung contains two lobes
Left lung contains three lobes

Composed of blood, arterial and venous
network, connective tissue, respiratory
pathway, and alveoli

15

Alveoli

Lungs contain over 300 million alveoli

Alveoli located at ends of bronchial tree

Each alveoli receives blood from 200,000
capillaries

Oxygen is absorbed from the capillary network

Carbon dioxide is transported out of alveoli

16

Primary Inspiratory Muscle

Diaphragm is the primary muscle of
inspiration

Separates the thorax from the abdomen

Central tendon is a sheet-like tendon

Fibers of diaphragm pull on central tendon

Diaphragm is pulled downward during inspiration

Lungs are expanded in the vertical dimension

17

Pleural Linings

Diaphragm and the lungs are covered
with pleural linings

Pleural linings are the basis for air movement

Pleura of lungs and diaphragm are in contact

Contraction of diaphragm pulls lungs down

Expands lungs and draws air into lungs

18

Accessory Muscles of Inspiration

Accessory muscles of thorax and neck
help to promote inspiration
Elevate the rib cage
Expand the rib cage
A person can survive on diaphragmatic
support without accessory muscles

19

Anterior thoracic muscles of inspiration

External intercostal
Interchondral portion, internal intercostal

20

Accessory muscles of the neck

Important for respiration
Source of stability
Control neck flexion and extension
Specific muscles of the neck
Sternomastoid muscle
Scalenes (anterior, middle, posterior) muscles

21

Thoracic muscles of expiration

Anterior muscles
Posterior muscles

Abdominal muscles of expiration
Anterolateral abdominal muscles

Posterior abdominal muscles

Muscles of the upper limb

22

Process of Forced Expiration

Contraction of the abdominal muscles
Squeezing of the abdomen
Compression of the viscera

23

Process of Forced Expiration

Contraction of the abdominal muscles

Squeezing of the abdomen

Compression of the viscera

Reduction of the size of the thorax

Air is pushed out of the lungs or expired