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What makes up the brain stem?

Medulla oblongata
Pons
Midbrain

1

Cranial nerves

I. Olfactory
II. Optic
III. Oculomotor
IV. Trochlear
V. Trigeminal
VI. Abducens
VII. Facial
VIII. Vestibulocochlear
IX. Glossopharyngeal
X. Vagus
XI. Accessory
XII. Hypoglossal.

2

Olfactory nerve

CN I.
Sensory
Involved in smelling

Doesn't go through thalamus

3

Optic nerve

CN II

Sensory

Vision

4

Oculomotor nerve

CN III

Motor
In midbrain.

Eye movement (incl. pupil dilation)

5

Trochlear nerve

CN IV

Motor
In midbrain

External muscles of eye.

6

Trigeminal nerve

CN V

Motor and sensory

Muscles of mastication, tongue, cheeks. Texture of taste.

In pons.

7

Abducens nerve

CN VI

Motor

Eye movements (abduction).

In pons

8

Facial nerve

CN VII

Motor and sensory

Saliva, tears, facial expression

In pons

9

Vestibulocochlear Nerve

CN VIII

Sensory

Ear, balance and hearing

In pons and medulla oblongata

10

Glossopharyngeal nerve

CN IX

Sensory and motor

Taste, swallowing salivating.

In medulla oblongata

11

Vagus nerve

CN X

Motor and sensory

Pharynx, larynx, parasympathetic response, increase digestion

In medulla oblongata.

12

Accessory nerve

CN XI

Accessory to vagus

Motor

Swallowing, taste in throat, SCM and traps.

In medulla oblongata

14

Hypoglossal nerve

CN XII

Motor

Tongue movement (speech and swallowing)

In medulla oblongata

15

Medulla Oblongata

Inferior part of brain stem
Foramen magnum --> pons

White matter contains all sensory and motor tracts between spinal cord and brain
Also contains nuclei that control vital brain function
And nuclei associated with CN VIII-XII

16

Pyramids

Protrusions of white matter on the anterior aspect of the medulla oblongata

Formed by corticospinal tracts that control voluntary moments of limbs and trunk

17

Decussation of pyramids

In medulla oblongata, just superior to junction with spinal cord, where 90% of axons cross over

18

Nuclei

Collection of neuronal cell bodies in CNS (= ganglion in PNS)

19

Cardiovascular centre

In medulla oblongata.

Regulates rate and force of heartbeat and diameter of blood vessels.

20

Medullary Respiratory Centre

In medulla oblongata

Adjusts the basic rhythm of breathing (with pontine respiratory group)

21

Vomiting Centre

In medulla oblongata.

Barfing.

22

Deglutition Centre

In medulla oblongata

Causes swallowing

23

Olive

In medulla oblongata.

Oval-shaped swelling that contains inferior olivary nucleus

24

Inferior olivary nucleus

In medulla oblongata

Receives input from cerebral cortex, red nucleus of midbrain, and spinal cord.

Neurons reach into cerebellum; allows inferior olivary nucleus to influence the cerebellum regarding muscle activity and learning new motor skills

25

Nuclei associated with what are located in the posterior medulla oblongata?

Sensations of discriminative touch, pressure, vibration, conscious proprioception (nuclei of the posterior column)

26

Gracile nuclei

In posterior medulla oblongata
Paired.
Nucleus of the gracile fasciculus (posterior column)

With Cuneate nucleus, involved with discriminative touch, pressure, vibration, conscious proprioception

27

Cuneate nuclei

Paired.
In posterior medulla oblongata
Nucleus of the cuneate fasciculus (posterior column)

With gracile nucleus, involved with discriminative touch, pressure, vibration, conscious proprioception

28

Medial lemniscus

Band of white matter connecting posterior column fasciluli (cuneate and gracile) to thalamus.

Extends through medulla, pons and midbrain.

29

Gustatory nucleus

In medulla oblongata
Part of gustatory pathway from tongue to brain.
Receives input from tastebuds.

30

Cochlear nuclei

In medulla oblongata
Part of auditory pathway from inner ear to brain.
Receive input from cochlea