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Meninges

Second protective structure after skull/vertebrae.

1

Layers of meninges

Dura mater
Arachnoid mater
Pia mater

2

Epidural space

Between dura mater and vertebrae

Contains fat and connective tissue.

3

Dura mater

Most superficial layer of the meninges
Thick and strong.

Made of dense irregular connective tissue.

Runs from Foramen Magnum to s2

Continuous with epineurum of nerves

4

Subdural space

Theoretical space between dura mater and arachnoid mater. Contains (minute quantities) of interstitial fluid.

5

Arachnoid mater

Middle layer of meninges

Loosely arranged collagen and elastic fibres.

6

Subarachnoid space

Between arachnoid and pia mater b

Contains CSF

7

Pia mater

Deepest, thinnest layer of meninges

Squamous --> cuboidal cells

Contains blood supply to spinal cord.

8

Denticulate ligaments.

Thickenings of pia mater.

Fuse with arachnoid and inner dura mater

Anchor spinal cord to vertenbrae

9

Diameter of spinal cord

1.5 cm

10

Length of spinal cord

Medulla oblongata to superior L2 (in adults; L3-4 in neonates)

11

Cervical enlargement of spinal cord

C4-T1 (nerves to/from upper limbs)

12

Lumbar enlargement of spinal cord

T9-12 (nerves to/from lower limbs)

13

Conus medullaris

Terminis of spinal cord

Inferior to lumbar enlargment

IVD between L1-2

14

Filum terminale

Anchors spinal cord to coccyx
Extension of pia mater (fused with arachnoid and dura mater)

15

Cauda equina

Inferiorly angled nerves exiting in the space between conus medullaris and end of vertebral column.

16

Peripheral: nerve
Central:

Tract

17

Peripheral: ganglia
Central:

Nuclei

* basal ganglia in brain is a nuclei not a ganglion *

18

Ganglia/Nuclei

Clusters of cell bodies

19

Tracts/nerves

Bundles of axons.

20

Rootlet

Small bundle of axons connecting nerve roots to spinal cord.

21

Roots

Larger bundles of axons connecting spinal nerves to segments of cord via rootlets

22

Posterior (dorsal) root

Axons of sensory neurons.

23

Dorsal root ganglion

Enlargement containing sensory cell bodies

24

Ventral (anterior) root

Motor nerves.

25

White matter

Mostly myelinated bundles of axon sheaths

In Peripheral Nervous system, superficial to grey matter

26

Grey matter

Unmyelinated axons, neuroglia, dendrites and cell bodies

In PNS deep to white matter

27

Postior median sulcus

Dent in centre posterior spinal cord.

28

Grey Commisure

Connects two halves of spinal cord.

29

Central canal of spinal cord

Contains CSF