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Compression syndromes of peripheral nerves

Cause local conduction block, but no structural damage

Numbness, tingling, pain and weakness.

Trauma --> inflammation --> impaired nerve transmission

1

Mononeuropathy

Single peripheral nerve affected

Commonly the result of trauma

2

Polyneuropathy

Several peripheral nerves affected

3

Radiculoneuropathy

Involves nerve root as it emerges from spinal cord

4

Polyradiculitis

Involvement of several nerve roots

Inflammatory response to infection.

5

Cervical plexus

Formed by anterior rami of C1-4

6

Superficial/sensory branches of cervical plexus

Lesser occipital
Great auricular
Transverse cervical
Supraclavicular

7

Lesser occipital branch

Sensory/superficial branch of cervical plexus

Origin: C2

Innervates: skin of scalp (posterior and superior to ear)

8

Great Auricular branch

Sensory/superficial branch of cervical plexus

Origin: C2-3

Innervates: skin anterior, inferior and over ear; skin over parotid glands

9

Transverse cervical branch

Sensory/superficial branch of cervical plexus

Origin: C2-3

Innervates: skin over anterior neck

10

Supraclavicular branch

Sensory/superficial branch of cervical plexus

Origin: c3-4

Innervates: skin over superior chest and shoulders

11

Deep (motor) branches of cervical plexus

Ansa cervicalis superior root
Ansa cervicalis inferior root
Phrenic
Segmental branches

12

Ansa cervicalis superior root

Deep branch of cervical plexus

Origin: C1

Innervates: infrahyoid and geniohyoid

* loops with ACIR

13

Ansa cervicalis inferior root

Deep branch of cervical plexus

Origin: C2-3

Innervates: infrahyoid

* loops with ACSR

14

Phrenic branch

Deep branch of cervical plexus

Origin: C3-5

Innervations: diaphragm

15

Segmental branches

Deep branches of cervical plexus

Origins: C1-5

Innervate: mm of neck, levator Scap, scalenes.

16

Severing spinal cord over what level causes respiratory arrest?

C3

17

Brachial plexus

C5-T1

Passes above R1, behind clavicle and enters axilla.

Supplies shoulders and arms

18

Branches of the brachial plexus

Dorsal scapular
Long thoracic
Nerve to subclavius
Suprascapular
Musculocutaneous
Lateral pectoral
Upper subscapular
Thoracodorsal
Lower subscapular
Axillary
Median
Radial
Medial pectoral
Medial cutaneous of arm
Medial cutaneous of forearm
Ulnar

19

Roots

Anterior rami of spinal nerves

Combine to form trunks

20

Trunks

Roots combine to form trunks.

In brachial plexus: superior, middle and inferior

Trunks divide into divisions

21

Divisions

What trunks divide into posterior to clavicle.

Unite in axilla to form cords

22

Cords

In axilla, what divisions untie to form.

Lateral, medial and posterior

Lead to branches.

23

Dorsal scapular nerve

C5

Levator scap
Rhomboids Major and minor

24

Long thoracic

C5-7

Serratus anterior

25

Nerve to subclavius

C5-6

Subclavius

26

Suprascapular

C5-6

Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus

27

Musculocutaneous

C5-7

Coracobrachialis
Brachialis
Biceps brachii

28

Lateral pectoral

C5-7

Pec major

29

Upper subscapular

C5-6

Subscapularis