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N160 exam 3 > Blood transfusion > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blood transfusion Deck (50)
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1

What are the types of blood donation?

 Standard
 Directed
 Autologus
 Immediate preoperative hemodilution
 Intraoperative Blood Salvage or Collection

2

How is blood typed for blood donation?

◦ ABO group
◦ Rh factor

3

 Surrounds RBCs
 Contain iso-antibodies that will fight off any antigens
that match

plasma

4

A patient with Type A blood can receive a transfusion of Type AB blood?

False. Only from type O and type A

5

A patient with Type AB blood can receive a transfusion of Type O blood?

True. Type AB can receive from type O, A, B, and AB

6

If your blood is positive for which diseases can it not be used?

 Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV- 1 & 2)
 Hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc)
 Hepatitis C core virus (HCV)
 Hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAG)
 Human T-Cell Lympotropic Virus, Type I
 (anti HTLV-I/II)
 Syphilis
 Chagas’ Disease
 West Nile Virus
 Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
 Zika

7

What diseases are transmitted through transfusion?

Hepatitis – viral hepatitis B, C
AIDS – HIV
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
Graft vs Host Disease (GVHD)
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)

8

What are the types of blood products?

 Whole Blood
 Packed Red Blood Cells
 Platelets
 Cryoprecipitate
 Fresh Frozen Plasma

9

What is needed for the pre-transfusion assessment?

 Patients’ transfusion history
 Any transfusions in the past
 Any reactions noted
 Physical assessment
 Focus on oxygenation & perfusion
 Know the patient’s baseline VS
 Complete skin assessment
 Teaching focus
 Explain the procedure
 Answer any questions
 Reassure the patient and reduce anxiety

10

What signs and symptoms/reactions should the nurse assess for during the blood transfusion process?

 S/S of transfusion reaction:
◦ Monitor VS per protocol
 BP (decreases)
 HR (increases)
 RR (decreases)
◦ Skin assessment – hives, flushing
◦ GI – N/V
◦ Chest pain
◦ Wheezing
◦ Headache, fever

11

What are the complications and adverse reactions that can occur during & post transfusion?

 Acute hemolytic reactions
 Delayed hemolytic reactions
 Febrile nonhemolytic reaction
 Allergic reactions
 Bacterial contamination
 Circulatory overload
 Transfusion-related acute lung injury
 Iron overload

12

What interventions should be done if a transfusion reaction is suspected?

 Stop the transfusion
 Infuse 0.9%NS
 Obtain VS
 Assess for additional S & S
 Notify prescriber - if the patient is
unstable call the Rapid-Response Team
 Notify blood bank of suspected reaction
 Follow the facility policy

13

 Caused by a major ABO incompatability
 Hemolysis

acute hemolytic reaction

14

what are the signs & symptoms acute hemolytic reaction?

◦ Fever, chills, low back pain, chest pain,
dyspnea, bronchospasm, nausea, anxiety,
hypotension, tachycardia, hemoglobinuria

15

What are the nursing interventions for acute hemolytic reactions?

◦ Foley catheter
◦ Low-dose dopamine (based on VS)
◦ Administer platelets &/or fresh frozen plasma

16

 Usually occurs within 2 weeks post transfusion
 Slow breakdown of RBCs
 Decrease in hematocrit

delayed hemolytic reaction

17

What are the signs & symptoms of delayed hemolytic reactions?

 Fever, anemia, jaundice, increased bilirubin levels

18

What are the nursing interventions for delayed hemolytic reactions?

no interventions needed

19

 Caused by patient’s antibodies reacting to leukocytes in donor blood

febrile nonhemolytic reactions

20

Febrile nonhemolytic reactions occurs more frequently in which types of patients?

◦ Received transfusions in the past
◦ Rh (-) women that gave birth to Rh (+) children

21

What are the signs & symptoms of febrile nonhemolytic reactions?

◦ Fever (beginning within 2 hours after start of
transfusion), flu-like symptoms, chills
tachycardia, headache, N & V, back pain

22

How can febrile nonhemolytic reactions be prevented in the future?

by reducing the number of leukocytes in donor blood

23

An allergic reaction from a blood transfusion can occur from?

antibody reaction to a specific protein in the donor unit

24

What are the signs & symptoms of a blood transfusion allergic reaction?

S & S:
o Mild-urticaria (hives), pruritus, nasal rhinitis, flushing
o Severe-bronchospasms, wheezing, laryngeal edema, shock

25

What are the nursing interventions for mild allergic reaction?

o Mild reaction-antihistamine may be ordered,
transfusion continued

26

What should be done if anaphylactic type symptoms continue?

o Call the Rapid-Response Team
o Be prepared to administer epinephrine,
corticosteroids, vasopressors

27

What should be done to prevent future allergic reactions from occurring?

o Re-medicate with antihistamines
o Product is washed to remove plasma proteins which
trigger the response

28

What acronym should we remember for blood transfusion reactions? What does it stand for?

A(allergic). F(febrile). H(hemolytic)

29

An allergic reaction can include?

*facial flushing
*hives/rash
*increased anxiety
*wheezing
*decreased BP

30

Febrile reactions can include?

*headache
*tachycardia
*tachypnea
*fever/chills
*anxiety