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Flashcards in HTN and HF Deck (38)
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1

What is hypertension?

-A sustained elevation of BP.
-A sign that the heart and blood vessels are being overworked.

2

What is a normal BP?

Systolic: less than 120
Diastolic: less than 80

3

What will be the result if high blood pressure is untreated?

-Atherosclerosis
-Congestive Heart Failure
-Organ damage
-Cardiomyopathy

4

How is BP determined?

-Cardiac Output (stroke volume x heart rate)
-Peripheral Resistance

5

What are the regulatory mechanisms for BP?

-Arterial baroreceptors
-Renal regulation of body fluid volume
-Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

6

What is the function of arterial baroreceptors?

Monitor the level of arterial pressure in:

-Carotid sinus
-Aortic arch
-Left ventricle

The arterial baroreceptors found in the aorta & left ventricle monitor the level of arterial pressure & vasodilation.

7

How does the renal system regulate the body fluid volume?

Excess salt & water changes venous return to the heart causing rise in CO (Cardiac Output), especially if the pt has poor kidney function

8

What is the function of renin, angiotensin, and angiotensin II?

They are vasoconstrictors that inhibit release of salt excretion from the kidneys.

9

Name the modifiable risk factors for HTN:

-Tobacco use
-Dyslipidemia (LDL)
-Excess dietary sodium (decrease intake)
-Obesity (lose at least 5lbs)
-Sedentary lifestyle
-Alcohol use
-High caffeine intake (stimulant; boost HTN)
-Stress

10

Name the non-modifiable risk factors for HTN:

-Age: 50% of ppl over 60 have HTN
-Ethnicity: 2x more prevalent in AA’s
-Gender: Men under 55 yrs; Women over 55 yrs
-Family history
-Socio-economic status

11

What is HTN also known as?

The silent killer

12

What are the two major classifications of HTN?

-Essential or Primary (idiopathic) Hypertension
-Secondary Hypertension

13

How does Essential or Primary (idiopathic) HTN begin?

-It has no known cause
-Begins as a benign disease and progresses

14

What are the associated risk factors with Essential or Primary (idiopathic) HTN?

-Family history, age, race
-High sodium intake
-Physical inactivity
-Excessive alcohol intake / smoking / drugs
-Low potassium, calcium, magnesium intake
-Excessive calorie consumption, obesity

15

How does secondary HTN begin?

It's related to a specific disease

16

What specific diseases can cause secondary HTN?

-Renal disease
-Coronary artery disease
-Dysfunction of adrenal glands
-Neurogenic disease; brain tumors, encephalitis
-Pregnancy
-Medications: estrogens + oral contraceptives
-Psychiatric disorders

17

What is benign primary hypertension?

-Usually has no symptoms
-Has an elevated BP (140-150/90-99)
-Early signs: palpations + headache

18

What is resistant hypertension?

High BP that is under control, but requires for or more meds that are also considered resistant.

19

How does resistant hypertension occur?

-Occurs if the pt's BP remains above goal
-BP still resistant when taking 3 meds from different antihypertensive categories.

20

What is accelerated hypertension?

When the BP has increased over a short period of time

21

What are the symptomatic vascular changes associated with accelerated hypertension?

-Heart attack
-Epistaxis
-Hematuria
-Proteinuria
-Angina

22

What is malignant hypertension?

-Rapid, progressive severe vascular changes
-BP readings of SBP > 200 mmHg, DBP > 150 mmHg
-Needs RAPID intervention

23

What symptoms are associated with malignant hypertension?

-Morning headaches
-blurred vision
-dyspnea
-uremia

24

What progressive systemic complications are associated with malignant hypertension?

-Renal failure
-L. Ventricular failure
-End-stage renal disease
-CVA (cerebrovascular accident aka stroke)
-MI (myocardial infarction aka heart attack)

25

What are the two types of hypertensive crisis?

Hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergency

26

What is a hypertensive urgency?

When the BP is elevated, but no sign of organ damage.

27

What are the s/s of hypertensive urgency?

-Severe headaches
-Nose bleeds
-Anxiety

28

How should you treat hypertensive urgency?

-Oral beta-blocker agents
-Angiotensin inhibitors
-Alpha-blockers

29

What BP is considered a hypertensive emergency?

-BP 180/120 mmHg or higher

30

What are the s/s of a hypertensive crisis?

-Nausea
-Vomiting
-Severe headache
-Diuresis
-Change in LOC
-Seizures
-Coma
-Blurred vision
-Numbness/tingling in limbs