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Flashcards in Meds List Deck (36)
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1

Action:
Blocks angiotensin-converting enzyme
◦ Stops conversion of angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2
◦ Angiotensin 2 is a strong vasoconstrictor
◦ Results in vessel relaxation

ACE Inhibitors ( Anti HTN)
Ends in -PRIL

2

Side Effects:
◦ Cough, hypotension, angioedema, lower BP in
elderly.
don't give with asthma and COPD

ACE Inhibitors ( Anti HTN)
Ends in -PRIL

3

Medications:
◦ enalapril(Vasotec), captopril (Capoten), lisinopril
(Zestril), ramipril (Altace)

ACE Inhibitors ( Anti HTN)
Ends in -PRIL

4

Actions:
◦ Interfers with membrane calcium ion influx in
heart
◦ Results in less vasoconstriction & vessel
relaxation
Decrease vasoconstriction
.Increase vasodilation / Relaxation
.Decrease BP

Calcium Channel Blockers ( Anti HTN / Anti anginal)
Ends in - INE

.

5

Side Effects: Headache, dizziness, bradycardia,
AV block, edema, rash

Calcium Channel Blockers ( Anti HTN / Anti anginal)Ends in - INE

6

Medications:
◦ verapamil (Calan), diltiazem (Cardizem),
nifedipine (Procardia), amlodipine (Norvasc)

Calcium Channel Blockers ( Anti HTN / Anti anginal)Ends in - INE

7

Lowers BP by blocking beta receptors in heart &
blood vessels
◦ Reduces HR rate & cardiac output
Ends in -LOL
Lowers BP by blocking Beta receptors in the heart & blood vessels
DON'T GIVE W/ COPD / ASTHMA

Beta Blockers ( Anti HTN , Antianginal)
Ends in -LOL

8

Side Effects:
Fatigue, Bronchospasm, Insomnia, Hypogycemia

Beta Blockers ( Anti HTN , Antianginal)
Ends in -LOL
Lowers BP by blocking Beta receptors in the heart & blood vessels
DON'T GIVE W/ COPD / ASTHMA

9

Medications:
◦ enalapril(Vasotec), captopril (Capoten), lisinopril
(Zestril), ramipril (Altace)

Beta Blockers ( Anti HTN , Antianginal)
Ends in -LOL

10

Actions:
◦ Relax vascular smooth muscle tone
◦ Reduces peripheral resistance
◦ Results in vessel relaxation

Vasodialators ( Anti HTN)

11

Side Effects:
◦ Hypotension, tachycardia, headache, edema,
dizziness, nausea.

Vasodialators ( Anti HTN)

12

Medications:
◦ sodium nitroprusside (Nipride), hydralazine
(Apresoline

Vasodialators ( Anti HTN)

13

Prevent Peripheral vasoconstriction and secretion of aldosterone & block the binding of A II to type I A II receptors
Used in place of Ace Inhibitors

Angiotensin 2 receptor blockers / ARBs ( Anti HTN)
Ends in -sarten

14

losarten (Cozaar)
valsarten ( Diovan)

Angiotensin 2 receptor blockers / ARBs ( Anti HTN)
Ends in -sarten

15

Avoid use with K+ supplements and K+ retaining diuretics

Angiotensin 2 receptor blockers / ARBs ( Anti HTN)
Ends in -sarten

16

DASH Diet

Dietary Approaches to Stop
Hypertension

17

Heparin
Warfarin ( Coumadin)
Lovenox (Enoxaparin)

Anticoagulants - DVT & PE prevention

18

Prevent conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin

Anticoagulants - DVT & PE prevention
HEPARIN

19

 Derivatives of standard heparin
 Used to prevent venous thromboembolism
 Products decrease < risk for bleeding
more than heparin
 LMWH inhibit synthesis of factor Xa
 Inhibits formation of thrombin
 Half life - 2-4 X longer than heparin
 LMWH is given SQ (only)
 Given in the abdomen

Anticoagulants - DVT & PE prevention
LOVENOX (Enexaparin)

20

Actions:
 Interfers with liver synthesis of the vitamin K
dependent clotting factors
 Depress synthesis of factor X, IX, VII, & II
prothrombin
 Agent does not affect established clots
 Prevents further extension of formed clots
 Taken 1X a day, after maintenance dose
established
 Coumadin cannot be given to pregnant patients

Anticoagulants - DVT & PE prevention
WARFARIN ( Coumadin)
Inhibit Vit. K needed for clotting

21

Side effects:
 Hemorrhage – bleeding precautions
 Antidote = Vitamin K
 Coagulations Studies: must be routinely monitored
to avoid excessive anti coagulation
 PT / INR – must be in therapeutic range, monitored
in “Coumadin Clinic”

Anticoagulants - DVT & PE prevention
WARFARIN ( Coumadin)
Inhibit Vit. K needed for clotting

22

Patient Teaching:
 Bleeding precautions
 Recommend pt limit-avoid green/leafy veggies &
any food high in vitamin K – decreases effectiveness

Anticoagulants - DVT & PE prevention
WARFARIN ( Coumadin)
Inhibit Vit. K needed for clotting

23

Actions:
 Inhibits thrombin, blocks last step in clot
formation
 Approved prevent clots in Afib - drug of choice

Alternative Oral Anti Coagulant Medications:
Medication: dabigatran (Pradaxa)

24

Side Effects:
 Hemorrhage – bleeding precautions
 Used with caution due to lack of antidote
 No dietary restrictions

Alternative Oral Anti Coagulant Medications:
Medication: dabigatran (Pradaxa)

25

Actions:
 Blocks an earlier step in clot formation
 Approved to prevent DVT that might lead to
PE in pts with knee or hip replacement

Alternative Oral Anti Coagulant Medications:
Medication: rivaroxaban (Xarelto)

26

Side Effects:
 Hemorrhage – bleeding precautions
 Used with caution due to lack of antidote
 No dietary restrictions

Alternative Oral Anti Coagulant Medications:
Medication: rivaroxaban (Xarelto)

27

 Actions:
◦ Used for severely compromised pts
◦ Helps restore hemodynamic stability

Thrombolytic Therapy:
 Medications:
◦ Urokinase, Streptkinase, Reteplase

28

Side effects: Severe bleeding

Thrombolytic Therapy:
 Medications:
◦ Urokinase, Streptkinase, Reteplase

29

Contraindications:
◦ Less than 2 months since CVA
◦ Less than 10 days post op
◦ Recent child birth, trauma, or severe HTN

Thrombolytic Therapy:
 Medications:
◦ Urokinase, Streptkinase, Reteplase

30

Special Interventions:
 Prior to initiation of therapy labs
◦ APTT, PTT, PT, INR, HCT, platelets
 Heparin is discontinued
 Bleeding Precautions
◦ All invasive procedures are avoided unless
essential due to risk of bleeding
 After thrombolytic medication therapy is
complete pt is put on anticoagulation therapy
(heparin / warfarin or alternatives

Thrombolytic Therapy