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Flashcards in Blood Deck (317)
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151

Ligand

152

Lysosome

153

Surface receptor

154

Nucleus

155

Actin cortex

156

LDL receptors 'recruited' by chlaritin

157

Chlaritin complex

158

Individual LDL receptor

159

Describe the diagram

  • Actin directed border forming
  • Ligand binding
  • Actin dependent forming of pseudopodia

 

160

Describe the figure

  • Internalisation
    • Assisted with actin and fusogenic proteins
  • Actin-binding
    • Synthesis of fusogenic proteins

161

Describe the figure

Phagosome synthesis

162

Describe the figure

Phago-lysosome synthesis

163

Describe the figure

  1. Residual body synthesis
  2. Oxidative 'burst'
  3. Digestion

164

Give the stages of the respiratory burst

  1. First enzymatic step: NADPH-oxidase
  2. Second enzymatic step: SOD
  3. Third enzymatic step: MPO

165

Give the reaction of the first enzymatic step of phagocytosis

  • NADPH-oxidase
    • NADPH + 2O2 = 2O• + NADP + H+
    • Active oxygen radical

166

Give the reaction of the second enzymatic step of phagocytosis

  • SOD
    • Superoxide dismutase
    • 2O• + H2O → 2H2O2

167

Give the reaction of the third enzymatic step of phagocytosis

  • MPO
    • Myeloperoxidase
    • H2O+ Cl→ ClO+ H2O
    • The most aggressive

168

Phagocyting ability increases .... times higher in the presence of a foreign body

100 times

169

Opsonisation

Where natural substances in the plasma e.g C3b factor can bind foreign antigen bodies to the receptor of a granulocyte.

170

Immune adherence

Similar to opsonisation only with the presence of an antibody/immunoglobulin

171

Basophil granulocyte

  • Rarest WBC type
  • Mast cells found in tissues
  • Limited movement
  • Loosen tissues in the presence of antigens
    • Allows other defence elements to move to the place of infection
    • Act as a stimulent of antigen elimination

172

Name the enzymes present in Basophil granulocytes

  • Hyaluronidase (specific)
  • Protease
  • Myeloperoxidase

173

Degranulation

  • Stimulated in different ways
  • The release of granules (and therefore enzymes)
  • The enzymes loosen the environment
  • Extreme degranulation: pathological damage in the animal's own tissues - allergy

174

Give the specific degranulation pathway

  1. Antibodies are forming, slower reaction
  2. Antigen + antibody/complement stimulates degranulation
  3. Normal response: Tissues loosen, immune cells access tissues

175

Give the non-specific degranulation pathway

  1. Complememnts are always present, quick reaction
  2. Antigen + antibody/complement stimulates degranulation
  3. Pathological response: Anaphylaxis

176

What is a cytophilic antibody?

  • An antibody that attaches to the basophil granulocyte
  • The granulocyte has already prepared binding for antigens due to the antibody acting as a compliment

177

Which contents of the basophil granulocyte granules cause the tissues to loosen

  • Histamine
  • Heparin
  • Hyaluronidase

178

What causes anaphylaxis?

  • Degranulation
    • Heparin release
    • Accelerates antibodies entering the interstitium
    • Accelerates Slow-reacting factor of anaphylaxis
      • Causes long lasting inflammation

179

What does heparin help to prevent?

Coagulation

180

Eosinophil granulocyte

  • Contains 'granules' in the form of lysosomes
  • Lifetime: 3-5 days
  • Has an antiallergic effect
  • Proportion increases during allergic processes
  • Pinocytosis only
  • Cellular elimination in parasites