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Flashcards in Blood Deck (317)
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91

Methaemoglobin/Hemiglobin can be reversed by which reducing agent?

Intravenous methylene blue injection

92

Give the two most important buffer bases in the blood

  • Hb-
  • HCO3-

93

Which acid-base pair ensures buffer action in the blood?

HHb/Hb-

94

What percentage of buffer capacity is provided by haemoglobin?

35%

95

Which is a better proton acceptor?

  • Deoxygenated Hb
  • Oxygenated Hb

Deoxygenated

96

Give the stages of the degradation of haemoglobin

(Not via phagocytosis)

  1. RBCs → sphaerocytes
  2. Sphaerocytes → Spleen + liver
  3. Spleen + Liver release Haemoglobin
  • Haptoglobin binds haemoglobin in blood
  • Haemopexin binds haemoglobin in plasma

97

Describe how phagocytes break down haemoglobin

Haemoglobin broken down into:

  • Globin → Aminoacid (recirculated)
  • HEM → Fe (recirculated)
  • HEM → protoporfirin-IX → Bilirubin (then enters blood)

98

Name given to bilirubin when bound to Albumin

Bilirubin-I

99

What percentage of bilirubin-I is conjugated with Glucuronic acid?

80%

100

What percentage of bilirubin-I is conjugated with sulphate

20%

101

When bilirubin conjugates, it becomes...

Bilirubin-II

102

Where is Bilirubin-II deconjugated and how?

  • In the gut
  • Deconjugated by bacteria

103

Function of gut bacteria:

  • Bilirubin-II →
  • Bilirubin-I →

  • Stercobilnogen
  • Urobilinogen (UBG)

104

Give the fate of Stercobilnogen

  • Oxidised
  • Stercobilin formed
  • This passes into the faeces (stercobilin makes it brown)

105

Give the fate of urobilinogen

  • Absorbed by the gut
    • Portal circulation → Liver (14%)
    • (Converted back to bilirubin)
  • Absorbed by vv. hemorriodhales (1%)
    • Systemic circulation → Renal excretion (Urine)

106

Bilirubin-II

107

Bile

Containing bilirubin-II

108

Bilirubin-I

after degredation by bacteria

109

Stercobilinogen

110

Stercobilin

111

Urobilinogen (UBG)

112

Urobilinogen (UBG)

113

In embryonic stages, the red marrow recieves its blood-forming function by...

The embryionic liver

(blood-forming function also given to the spleen in mice)

114

Blood cell types are derived from

Progenitor cells (after a maturation stage)

115

During embryonic stages, which primordial cell type doesn't roam to the bone marrow?

T-progenitor cell

(settles in the thymus, produces T-lymphocyte)

116

Give the stages of blood cell development

  1. Omnipotent primordial cell
  2. Committed progenitor cell
  3. Burst forming cell, erythroid
  4. CFC-E colony
  5. Normoblasts
  6. Reticulocyte
  7. Erythrocyte 

117

What can a reticulocyte number >0.5% be a clinical indicator of?

Forced blood synthesis

118

Describe nucleus expulsion during blood cell development

  1. MHC structures roam to the pole
  2. Nucleus and MHC structures are exocytosed
  3. Blood type-specific antigens remain on the RBC surface
  4. Reticulocyte forms inside (not fully mature RBC yet)

Hb-mRNA is left in the cell, haemoglobin synthesis continues in endoplasmic reticulum

 

119

Give the factors affecting RBC synthesis

  • Oxygen supply
    • Hypoxia
    • High altitude
    • Blood loss
  • Kidney status
    • REF (renal erythropoietic factor)
  • Age

120

Describe the spleen colony test

  1. X-rays halt hematopoesis in animal 1
  2. Bone marrow cells implanted from animal 2 to animal 1
  3. 2 weeks lapse, implanted RBCs appear in animal 1
  4. Spleen becomes enlarged, signal peptides increase in blood