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Flashcards in 5-State & Tools of Statecraft Deck (21)
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1

What is statecraft?

a state's strategy for vis-a-vis (with regards to) other states

2

What is a state according to the 4 legal conditions outlined in the 1933 Montevideo Convention?

TSAR

1) T - territory; geographically bounded territorial base

2) S - stable population within its borders

3) A- allegiance; population owes its allegiance to an effective government

4) R - recognition; other states recognize it diplomatically

3

What is a nation?

a group of people who share a common history, heritage, language, customs, culture, etc.

4

What is credibility in the context of tools of statecraft?

other states believe a state can/will do what it says

when a state has both the ABILITY and INCENTIVE to act

or CAPABILITY and INTENT

5

What is diplomacy in the context of tools of statecraft? How do liberals and realists view diplomacy?

the use of bargaining and negotiation, taking or refraining from a specific action, or appealing to a foreign public for support of a position

liberals - talking is better than not talking

realists - skeptical; effective only when backed by military or economic forces

6

To what does "two-level game" refer in the context of statecraft? How can it be a complicated game?

influencing other state actors as well as their domestic audiences

policies/actions that work at one level may not work at the other

7

What is public diplomacy in the context of statecraft?

targeting both foreign publics and elites to create an overall image that enhances a country's ability to achieve its diplomatic objectives

8

What is track-two diplomacy?

using individuals outside the government to carry out negotiations

9

What are the 3 types of economic sanctions?

positive engagement, i.e., carrot (aka positive sanctions)

negative sanctions (sanctions), i.e., stick

smart sanctions - targeting the specific "who" behind the "what" (activity) rather than an entire state (thus recognizing the importance of the individual in IR...what do realists think about smart sanctions?)

10

How effective are economic sanctions?

one empirical study of UN-imposed sanctions found that they changed behavior only 10% of the time

Thomas Biersteker, Sue E. Eckert, Marcos Tourinho, and Zuzana Hudakova, The Effectiveness of United Nations Targeted Sanctions: Findings from the Targeted Sanctions Consortium, http://repository.graduateinstitute.ch/record/287976/files/effectiveness_TCS_nov_2013 .pdf (accessed1/4/18).

11

What is compellence?

actions to cause behavior

when a state threatens to use force to get another state to do something or undo an action

12

What is deterrence?

actions to prevent behavior

when a state threatens to use force IF another state does something

13

What is the rational model of decision-making?

a state (unitary actor) identifies a problem, defines goals, determines policy alternatives (COAs), weighs costs/benefits, and selects the action with lowest cost & highest benefit

[assumes an ability to properly scope the problem, identify the full range of viable policy options, and identify the full range of costs/benefits]

14

What is the bureaucratic / organizational model of decision-making?

highlights the role that sub-national gov't organizations and bureaucracies play in influencing policy decisions

organizational procedures or bureaucratic interests influence decisions

15

What is the pluralist model of decision-making?

societal groups influence foreign policy decisions

e.g., interest groups, MNCs, public opinion, mass movements

16

What is satisficing?

when decisions reached are not the most rational/best outcome, but rather a minimally acceptable solution to all relevant parties

17

How do realists / neorealists view using state power, foreign policy-making, and its determinants?

How do realists / neorealists view using state power, foreign policy-making, and its determinants?

1) USING STATE POWER: emphasis on coercive techniques of power; force acceptable

2) MAKING FOREIGN POLICY: emphasis on rational model of decision-making; unitary actor assumed once decision is made

3) DETERMINANTS OF FP: largely external/international factors

18

How do liberals / neoliberals view using state power, foreign policy-making, and its determinants?

How do liberals / neoliberals view using state power, foreign policy-making, and its determinants?

1) USING STATE POWER: broad range of power techniques; preference for non-coercive alternatives

2) MAKING FOREIGN POLICY: bureaucratic/organizational and pluralist models of decision-making

3) DETERMINANTS OF FP: largely domestic factors

19

How do constructivists view using state power, foreign policy-making, and its determinants?

How do constructivists view using state power, foreign policy-making, and its determinants?

1) USING STATE POWER: power is a tool of elites for socializing societies through norms

2) FP-MAKING: decisions based on norms and strategic culture that regulate policy sectors

3) DETERMINANTS OF FP: external factors in combination with domestic civil society

20

What are some contemporary challenges to state power?

globalization

transnational movements

ethnonationalist movements

transnational criminal organizations

fragile states

21

What is an enthonationalist movement?

a movement of people seeking their own state

attempting to replace current government with one representing the interests of the movement