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Why do IR scholars use the 1648 Treaties of Westphalia as a benchmark?

- Marked the end of religious rule in Europe; emergence of secular authorities
- SOVEREIGNTY: emergence of the notion of the territorial integrity of states as legally equal and sovereign participants in the intl system
- CENTRALIZATION: states developed their our militaries; military power grows
- Core European states emerged: Austria, Russia, Prussia, England, France, & the United Provinces (Netherlands)


What is sovereighty?

- No authority above the state, e.g., the church
- States still limited by regime type, constitutions, treaties, cultural norms, etc.


What is legitimacy?

Consent of the governed


What is nationalism?

people identifying with a common past, language, customs, and territory, i.e., coming together as a nation of people

identification with one's own nation and support for its interests, especially at the exclusion or the detriment of other nation's interests


What is imperialism?

the annexation of distant territory (most often by force) and its inhabitants to an empire

extending a country's rule over foreign people, often by military force


What is colonialism?

Settling of people from a home country among indigenous people of a different territory and establishing political control over the area


How much of the world had Europeans colonized by 1914?



What is a hegemon?

a predominant state; a state with more power than any other state in the region


How many people died during the Cold War? (How many people are dying during ongoing proxy wars?)

In Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Latin America, over 40 million people died during superpower proxy wars from 1946-1990.


What is populism?

a political approach that strives to appeal to ordinary people who believe elites have disregarded their concerns


What was a rollback strategy during the Cold War?

pushing the USSR back to its own borders


What was containment of the USSR?

devise policies that restrained the USSR, but not necessarily using military force