3.6.1.2 receptors Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3.6.1.2 receptors Deck (29)
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1

Give the location of osmoreceptors in the body of a mammal

hypothalamus

2

When a person is dehydrated the water volume of an osmoreceptor falls - why?

1. Water potential of blood will decrease;
2. Water moves from osmoreceptor into blood by osmosis;

3

What is the function of a receptor cell?

To detect stimuli

4

The pressure receptors found in the skin are called...

Pacinian Corpuscles

5

Pacinian corpuscles respond to which type of stimuli?

Mechanical pressure.

6

Receptors cells are transducers. What is a transducer?

Something that converts one form of energy (e.g. light) into a form that can be understood by the body (e.g. an electrical impulse).

7

In order to create an electrical impulse a receptor cell creates a...

generator potential.

8

Where are pacinian corpuscles abundantly found?

In the skin of the fingers, genitals, hands, feet, ligaments and tendons.

9

The cell membrane at the end of the sensory neurone found inside a pacinian corpuscle contains...

Stretch-mediated sodium channels

10

What is a stretch-mediated sodium channel?

A sodium channel protein whose permeability to sodium ions increases when they are deformed.

11

Describe how a generator potential is created by a pacinian corpuscle.

1. In the absence of pressure, stretch-mediated sodium channels in the membrane of the sensory nerve endings found the corpuscle are closed.
2. This maintains a resting potential difference in Na+ across the membrane (more outside than inside).
3. Pressure deforms the channel proteins, increasing permeability to Na+.
4. Na+ influx into cell causes a depolarisation to occur (more Na+ now inside than outside).
5. The depolarisation creates a generator potential which leads to a wave of depolarisations (action potentials) along the neurone.
6. This is called an electrical impulse.

12

In which part of the eye are light receptor cells found?

The retina

13

The 2 types of light receptor cells are called...

rod cells
cone cells

14

Rod and cone cells are transducers. Explain.

They convert light energy into an electrical impulse.

15

Rod cells are responsible for ____________ vision

black and white

16

Why can rod cells only lead to images seen in black and white?

They cannot distinguish between different wavelengths of light.

17

Does the eye contain more rod cells or cone cells?

Rod cells

18

Rod cells are sensitive to _____ intensity light, cone cells are sensitive to _________ intensity light.

Rod cells are sensitive to LOW intensity light, cone cells are sensitive to HIGH intensity light.

19

Why are many rod cells connected to a single sensory neurone?

1. To allow retinal convergence to occur.
2. The is a greater chance of the threshold value being exceeded to allow an action potential to occur along the sensory neurone. (note: you will need to study next topic to fully understand this).

20

Which pigment, that breaks down in low intensity light, is found inside rod cells?

Rhodopsin

21

Because each rod cell connects to a single sensory neuron the light from each neurone is not individually distinguishable. This means that rod cells can only produce...

LOW VISUAL ACUITY (low resolution)

22

How many types of cone cell are there?

3

23

Each of the three types of cone cell contain a specific group of pigments called...

iodopsins

24

Does iodopsin break down in the presence of low or high intensity light?

high intensity

25

Cone cells are connected to their own individual sensory neurone. True or False?

TRUE

26

Because each cone cell connects to a single sensory neuron the light from each neurone is individually distinguishable. This means that cone cells can produce...

HIGH VISUAL ACUITY (high resolution)

27

The lens of the eye focuses light at a central point in the retina called the...

fovea

28

The outer periphery of the retina (not the fovea) contains _________ cells

Rod cells

29

The fovea is where ________ cells are found because it receives the highest intensity of light.

Cone cells