3.8.3 Using genome projects Flashcards Preview

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Why might the ability to determine the genome of simple organisms be useful to medical scientists?

Could be used to identify antigens for use in vaccine production.


Why is determining the genome of more complex organisms not easily translated into proteome?

Most of the DNA consists of introns.


What is a genome?

all of the genetic material in an organism.


How long did it take to map all 3 billion base pairs organised into 20,000 genes achieved in 2003?

13 years


what is bioinformatics?

the science of collecting and analysing complex biological data such as genetic codes.


How is all of the information stores in bioinformatics?



How is the data analysed in bioinformatics?

algorithms (mathematical formulae)


What is WGS short for?

whole genome shotgun


What happens in WGS?

the DNA is cut in small sections, use computer algorithms to align overlapping segments to assemble the entire genome. this is rapid and continually updated.


What does SNP stand for?

single nucleotide polymorphisms


What are SNP's?

single base variations in the human genome which are associated with disease and disorders.


What is offered to individuals to determine whether they have SNP's in their DNA?

medical screening


Aside from determining the presence of diseases and disorders, what is another purpose of sequencing DNA?

determine evolutionary relationships between species


What is the proteome?

the proteins the coded for by the genome of an organism.


What is the definition of a proteome taking into account that not all genes are switched on to make proteins all of the time?

proteins produced in a given type of cell (cellular proteome) or organism (complete proteome), at a given time, under specified conditions.


H. Influenza was the first bacterium to have its genome fully sequenced. When was this done?



What is the name of the project currently underway to sequence many single-celled organisms' genomes?

human microbiome project


What is the hope for the human microbiome project after its completion?

help cure diseases and exploit knowledge.


Why is it easier to sequence the genome of prokaryotes?

small amount of genetic material with few introns.


Knowing the genome of disease causing bacteria could reduce the impact of pathogens. Why?

identify the proteins acting as antigens, crease a vaccine and give to people in appropriate doses. This will allow a secondary immune response to protect people from particular diseases.


Why is it difficult to sequence the genome of eukaryotes?

Many introns which are non-coding (as little as 1.5% may code for human proteins), and all humans (except identical twins) have differenced in their genome.