Week 1 Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Week 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 1 Deck (41)
Loading flashcards...

Definition of Pharmacokinetics

Derived from two Greek words: pharmkon (drug or poison) and kinesis (motion)
The study of drug movement throughout the body


4 Processes of Pharmacokinetics

1. Absorption
2. Distribution
3. Metabolism
4. Excretion


Pharmacokinetics does NOT include which of the following:

Receptor activity

Receptor activity


The major barrier to the passage of drugs is?

the cell membrane (double-layer of phospholipids)


Three Ways to Cross a Cell Membrane

Channels or Pores
Na+ and K+ use channels (few drugs use)

Transport Systems
Very selective - drugs with a particular structure
Carries drug from one side to the other side
Some require energy, others do not

Direct Penetration of the Membrane
Most drugs use this method


Transmembrane protein which transports drugs out of cells

Maternal Blood
Intestinal Lumen


Two types of Direct Penetration 
of the Membrane

-Lipophilic (Lipid soluble):Dissolves into lipid that composes the cell membrane and enters the cell
-Non-lipid soluble (Polar Molecules and Ions)
UNABLE to dissolve into membrane


Most drugs cross the cell membrane by:
1. utilizing dedicated channels or pores.
2. using selective transport systems.
3. directly penetrating the cell membrane.
4. diffusing between the cells.

3. directly penetrating the cell membrane.


About Polar Molecules

1. Uneven distribution of electrical charge
2. No net charge
Number of protons = number of electrons
3. Dissolves well in water
4. Have a net electrical charge
-Positive or negative charge
-Unable to cross cell membranes
-A few utilize channels: Na, K, Ca


Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

At least one nitrogen (N)
N has four rather than 3 bonds
--Carries a positive charge
--Unable to cross most membranes
Ex. Tubocurarine
-Muscle relaxant


P-glycoprotein is a multidrug transporter found in the _________ and transfers drugs _____ the cells.

1. cytoplasm, out of
2. cytoplasm, into
3. cell membrane, out of
4. cell membrane, into

3. cell membrane, out of


Definition of ionization
-- Acid and Base

Process of when a base or acid become charged, the process
-An acid gives up a proton (H+) and becomes negatively charged
- A base accepts a proton (H+) and becomes positively charged.


About pH-Dependent Ionization

-The pH environment plays a role in cell membrane crossing
-Drugs exist as uncharged or charged (ionized) forms of weak bases or weak acids
-A weak base or weak acid carries a charge based on the pH of the environment
---An acid will ionize in a basic (alkaline) environment
----A base will ionize in an acidic environment


Example of 
pH-Dependent Ionization

Aspirin is a weak acid
-Does NOT ionize in the acidic stomach
---May be absorbed in the stomach
-Does ionize in the basic intestines
---Ionized forms are non-lipophilic
---Unable to be absorbed in the intestines


Ion Trapping or pH Partitioning

If the pH gradient differs between 2 sides of a cell membrane
--Acidic drugs gather on the basic (alkaline) side.
--Basic drugs gather on the acidic side.

A drug accumulates on the side which most favors its ionization
--Ionized forms are non-lipophilic and unable to cross cell membranes


Acidic drugs are trapped on the ________ side of a pH gradient.

1. acidic
2. neutral
3. basic (alkaline)

3. Basic



-Movement of drug from its administration site into the blood.
-Absorption rate determines onset of action.
-Amount absorbed determines intensity of effects.


Factors Affecting Absorption (first 3)

Rate of Dissolution
-The formulation that dissolves quickly has a faster onset of action.

Surface Area
-The larger the surface area, the faster the absorption.
-The small intestines have more surface area than the stomach (due to microvilli).

Blood Flow
-The higher the blood flow, the more rapid the absorption.
-Large diffusion gradient created.


Factors Affecting Absorption (last 3)

Lipid Solubility
-The higher the lipid solubility, the faster the absorption.
-Highly lipophilic drugs pass through cell membranes quickly.

pH Partitioning
-Absorption increases when pH partitioning causes drug molecules to ionize in the plasma rather than administration site.

Gastric Emptying
-Some drugs are designed to be absorbed only in the intestine
-Delayed gastric emptying may delay absorption by minutes to hours


Routes of Administration

1. Enteral (via the GI tract)- oral or rectal
2. Parenteral (outside the GI tract)


Local vs. Systemic Effects

-Effects seen in area of administration only

-Effects seen in other areas besides the site of administration
-Drug absorbed from site of administration and distributed to other parts of the body


Intravenous Absorption

No barriers to absorption with this method of delivery

Instantaneous complete absorption

Multiple advantages
--Hallmark – Rapid onset
--Control over amount of drug delivered
--Ability to deliver large fluid volumes
--Ability to give irritating drugs


Intravenous Absorption, Disadvantages

---Give slowly IV push over at least 1 min
---Reaches brain in 15 seconds
---Infusing slowly allows stopping medication and preventing dangerous reactions

Fluid overload
---Monitor IV rate of infusion

Infection risk
---Avoid drug contamination

Embolism risk – blockage of vessel distant to site of administration
---Clots due to RBC destruction from hypertonic or hypotonic solutions
---Incompletely dissolved drugs

High cost, difficulty, inconveniences


Intramuscular Absorption

Only barrier to absorption is the capillary wall
---Large spaces in between the capillary wall cells
---Drug passes through these spaces with ease

Rate of absorption
---Rapid absorption of water-soluble drugs (10-30 minutes)
---Increased rate of absorption if high blood flow


Intramuscular Absorption
- Advantages and Disadvantages

-Administration of poorly soluble drugs
-Administration of depot preparations
---Preparations designed to be absorbed over time
---Less injections

-Discomfort and inconvenience
-Very painful injections
-Local tissue injury
-Nerve damage if improperly administered


Subcutaneous Absorption

SC administration is almost identical to IM injection
--Passes readily between spaces between capillary wall cells
--Water-soluble drugs absorbed rapidly
--Increased absorption with increased blood flow

No significant barriers to absorption


Subcutaneous Absorption
- Advantages and Disadvantages

--Suitable for poorly-soluble drugs
--Depot preparations

--Potential for tissue injury


The advantages of intramuscular absorption include:

1. instantaneous, complete absorption.
2. administration of poorly soluble drugs.
3. convenience of administration.

Answer 2. administration of poorly soluble drugs


Oral Absorption

PO abbreviation stands for per os, a Latin phrase meaning by way of the mouth

Absorbed by the stomach or intestines


Oral Absorption- Three barriers to absorption exist for this route:

Epithelial cell membranes that lines the GI tract

Capillary cell membranes

--In intestinal epithelial cell membranes
--Transports drug back into intestinal lumen