Flashcards in Wk 14 Lipid Lowering Deck (23)
1. How often should adults be screened for high cholesterol?
Every 5 years
2. Cholesterol is mainly produced when?
3. Which lipoproteins are the “bad” lipoproteins?
4. The triglycerides are carried by which lipoproteins?
5. Carbohydrates should be restricted to 50-60% of the caloric intake because they can form what?
6. Saturated fats should be what percent of the caloric intake?
7. How do HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors work?
Reduce synthesis of cholesterol by inhibiting the enzyme. And increasing the number of LDL receptors in the liver.
8. When should statins be taken?
In the evening
9. What are two severe adverse effects of statins?
Hepatoxicity and myopathy
10. What are two contraindications for statins?
Liver disease and pregnancy
11. How do bile-acid sequestrants lower cholesterol?
They inhibit reabsorption of bile and cause the liver to use LDLs in the blood to make more bile. The liver increases the number of LDL receptors in the liver.
12. What deficiencies can be caused by bile-acid sequestrants?
Vitamin A,D, E,K
13. A patient must wait how long after the administration of a bile-acid sequestrant before taking another medication?
14. Bile-acid sequestrants are taken to lower what?
15. What three lipid changes are expected with Niacin?
Decreased triglycerides, decreased LDLs, increased HDL
16. What medicines are used to premedicate patients prior to Niacin?
ASA or ibuprofen to limit flushing
17. Fibrates are the most effective drug for lowering what?
18. Fibrates can cause what gastrointestinal dysfunction?
Gallstones, nausea, diarrhea, and abdominal pain
19. What major risk increases when fibrates are coadministered with statins?
Risk of myopathy. (Also liver injury and kidney disease)
20. Do fibrates increase or decrease the effect of warfarin?
Increase by displacing warfarin from the albumin.
21. How does ezetimibe (Zetia) work?
Blocks reabsorption of dietary and biliary cholesterol
22. What are the side effects of ezetimibe (Zetia)?
Myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, gallstones, pancreatitis, hepatitis, thrombocytopenia.