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Flashcards in Urinary System Deck (81)
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1

Eight functions of the kidneys

1. regulation of blood ions
2. regulation of blood pH
3. regulation of blood volume
4. regulation of blood pressure
5. maintenance of blood osmolarity
6. hormone production
7. regulation of blood glucose levels
8. excretion of waste and foreign substances

2

Anatomical location of kidneys

Retroperitoneal cavity
Right lower than left because of liver
Left is between T12 and L3, protected by R11 & 12 (so kidney punch to the right)

3

Retroperitoneal

The retroperitoneal space (retroperitoneum) is the anatomical space (sometimes a potential space) in the abdominal cavity behind (retro) the peritoneum. It has no specific delineating anatomical structures. Organs are retroperitoneal if they have peritoneum on their anterior side only.

4

Three external layers of the kidney

1. renal fascia (anchors kidney to surrounding abdominal wall)
2. adipose capsule (holds kidneys in place, and protects from trauma)
3. renal capsule (continuous with ureters; maintain shape and protect from trauma)

5

Renal lobe

one renal pyramid and 1/2 of each renal column on each side

6

Renal parenchyma

Functional portion. Renal pyramid + renal cortex

7

Path of urine flow through kidneys

Glomerulus
Bowman's capsule
PCT
Descending Loop of Henle
(Thin ascending Loop of Henle)
Thick ascending Loop of Henle
DCT
Collecting ducts
Papillary ducts
Minor calyx
Major calyx
Renal pelvis
Ureter
Bladder
Urethra
Outside

8

What percentage of body mass do the kidneys comprise?
What percentage of resting cardiac output do they consume?

0.5% and 20-25%

9

Path of blood through kidney

Renal artery
Segmental artery
Interlobar arteries
Arcuate arteries
+Cortical radiate arteries
*Interlobular arteries

Afferent arterioles
Glomerular capillaries
Efferent arterioles
Peritubular capillaries OR vasa recta
*Peritubular venules

*Interlobular veins
Cortical radiate veins
Arcuate veins
Interlobar veins
Renal Vein

10

Kidneys are innervated by the:

Sympathetic division of the ANS

11

Functional unit of the kidney

Nephron

12

Nephron

Functional unit of the kidney
Composed of the renal corpuscle and renal tubule

Can't be regrown

1 million/kidney

13

Two types of nephron

Cortical (80%)
Juxtamedullary (20%)

14

Renal corpuscle

Part of the nephron

Consists of Bowman's capsule and glomerulus

Where filtration occurs

15

Bowman's capsule

AKA glomerular capsule.
Surrounds glomerulus

Double walled
Lined with simple squamous epithelium

16

Layers of Bowman's Capsule

Parietal (outer)
Capsular space
Visceral (inner)

17

Podocytes

Cells on the visceral layer of the Bowman's capsule.
Help form the filtration membrane

18

Glomerulus

Capillary network within Bowman's capsule.
After afferent arteriole; before efferent arteriole

19

Renal tubule

Passageway for filtered fluid
Between glomerulus and collecting duct
Consists of:
1. proximal convoluted tubule
2. Loop of Henle
3. distal convoluted tubule

20

Proximal Convoluted Tubule

PCT
Found entirely in the renal cortex
Simple cuboidal epithelial cells with microvilli

Where most H2O and all glucose reabsorption occurs

21

Loop of Henle

AKA Nephron Loop
Contains descending limb that dips into medulla, and ascending limb that returns to cortex
Connects PCT and DCT

Limited reabsorption; little itty bitty secretion of urea

22

Cortical nephrons

80%
Short loops of Henle
No thin ascending limb
Blood supplied by peritubular capillaries

23

Juxtamedullary nephrons

20%
Long Loops of Henle
Blood supplied by vasa recta
Ascending limb has both a thin and a thick portion

24

Epithlelium of descending and thin ascending limb

Simple squamous epithelium

25

Epithelium of renal tubule (except descending and thin ascending limbs)

Simple cuboidal to low columnar epithelial

26

What are the specialized cells in the ascending Loop of Henle?

Macula densa
Juxta-glomerular

Occur right by nephron

27

Macula densa

Densely compacted columnar cells in ascending tubule cells of Loop of Henle
Detect increased flow of Na+, Cl- and H20 --> inhibit release of NO --> vasoconstriction

28

Juxta-glomerular (JG) cells

Smooth muscle fibres in afferent arteriole

29

Juxta-Glomerular Apparatus (JGA)

Combination of macula densa and JG cells in Loop of Henle

Help regulates BP in kidneys

30

Distal Convoluted Tuble

DCT
Found entirely in renal cortex
Many DCTs empty into a single collecting duct
Start just past macula densa in ascending limb